Herpetological Publications of the
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology
University of California, Berkeley


The following list includes over 1,300 articles, book chapters, and books on various aspects of the biology of amphibians and reptiles (exclusive of abstracts and book reviews) published by researchers associated with the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) or its affiliated field station, Hastings Natural History Reservation, since the founding of the MVZ in 1908.


Anonymous (written by D. B. Wake and H. J. Morowitz). 1991. Declining amphibian populations: global phenomenon? Findings and recommendations. Alytes 9:33-42.

Adams, L. 1942. The natural history and classification of the Mount Lyell salamander Hydromantes platycephalus. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 46:179-204.

Alberch, P. 1980a. Evidence of heterochronic evolution: a nasal bone in the Olympic salamander, Rhyacotriton olympicus. J. Herpetol. 14:292-295.

Alberch, P. 1980b. Ontogenesis and morphological diversification. Amer. Zool. 20:653-667.

Alberch, P. 1981. Convergence and parallelism in foot morphology in the neotropical salamander genus Bolitoglossa. I. Function. Evolution 35:84-100.

Alberch, P., and J. Alberch. 1981. Heterochronic mechanisms of morphological diversification and evolutionary change in the neotropical salamander, Bolitoglossa occidentalis (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). J. Morphol. 167:249-264.

Alberch, P., S. J. Gould, G. F. Oster, and D. B. Wake. 1979. Size and shape in ontogeny and phylogeny. Paleobiology 5:296-317.

Ananjeva, N. B., G. Peters, J. R. Macey, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1990. Stellio sacra (Smith 1935) - a distinct species of Asiatic rock agamid from Tibet. Asiatic Herpetol. Res. 3:104-115.

Anderson, J. D. 1956. A blind snake preyed upon by a scorpion. Herpetologica 12:327.

Anderson, J. D. 1960a. Cannibalism in Dicamptodon ensatus. Herpetologica 16:260.

Anderson, J. D. 1960b. Storeiastorerioides in western Mexico. Herpetologica 16:63-66.

Anderson, J. D. 1961a. The courtship behavior of Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum. Copeia 1961:132-139.

Anderson, J. D. 1961b. The life history and systematics of Ambystoma rosaceum. Copeia 1961:371-377.

Anderson, J. D., and W. Z. Lidicker, Jr. 1963. A contribution of our knowledge of the herpetofauna of the Mexican state of Aguascalientes. Herpetologica 19:40-51.

Anderson, J. D., and D. C. Wilhoft. 1959. A new subspecies of Eumeces multivirgatus from Mexico. Copeia 1959:57-60.

Anderson, P. K. 1958. The photic responses and water-approach behavior of hatchling turtles. Copeia 1958:211-215.

Anderson, P. K. 1960. Ecology and evolution in island populations of salamanders in the San Francisco Bay region. Ecol. Monogr. 30:359-385.

Arano, B., G. Llorente, M. García-París, and P. Herrero. 1995. Species translocation menaces Iberian waterfrogs. Conserv. Biol. 9:196-198.

Arnold, S. J. 1972. Species densities of predators and their prey. Amer. Nat. 106:220-236.

Arnold, S. J. 1976. Sexual behavior, sexual interference and sexual defense in the salamanders Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma tigrinum and Plethodon jordani. Z. Tierpsychol. 42:247-300.

Arntzen, J. W., and M. García-París. 1997. Phylogeny and biogeography of midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae): a rebuttal. Contrib. Zool. 66:263-268.

Atsatt, S. R. 1913. The reptiles of the San Jacinto area of southern California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 12:31-50.

Atsatt, S. R. 1923. Behavior of the leaf-nosed snake, Phyllorhynchus decurtatus. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 21:308-312.

Autumn, K. 1999. Secondarily diurnal geckos return to cost of locomotion typical of diurnal geckos. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72:339-351.

Autumn, K., and D. F. De Nardo. 1995. Behavioral thermoregulation increases growth rate in a nocturnal lizard. J. Herpetol. 29:157-162.

Autumn, K., C. T. Farley, M. Emshwiller, and R. J. Full. 1997. Low cost of locomotion in the banded gecko: a test of the nocturnality hypothesis. Physiol. Zool. 70:660-669.

Autumn, K., D. Jindrich, D. DeNardo, and R. Mueller. 1999. Locomotor performance at low temperature and the evolution of nocturnality in geckos. Evolution 53:580-599.

Autumn, K., and J. B. Losos. 1997. Notes on jumping ability and thermal biology of the enigmatic anole Chamaelinorops barbouri. J. Herpetol. 31:442-444.

Autumn, K., R. B. Weinstein, and R. J. Full. 1994. Low cost of locomotion increases performance at low-temperature in a nocturnal lizard. Physiol. Zool. 67:238-262.

Balgooyen, T. G. 1970. The sagebrush lizard: a new locality and comments on its distribution in west central California. California Fish and Game 56:310-311.

Banks, R. C. 1957. Birds mobbing a snake skin. Condor 59:213.

Bauer, A. M. 1985a. An annotated bibliography of New Caledonian herpetology. Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv. 66:1-15.

Bauer, A. M. 1985b. Notes on the taxonomy, morphology and behavior of Rhacodactylus chahoua (Bavay) (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 36:81-94.

Bauer, A. M. 1986. Saltation in the pygopodid lizard, Delma tincta. J. Herpetol. 20:462-463.

Bauer, A. M. 1987. The proper Latin designation of Duvaucel's gecko, with comments on specimens of historical note. New Zealand J. Zool. 14:593-595.

Bauer, A. M. 1989. Extracranial endolymphatic sacs in Eurydactylodes (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), with comments on endolymphatic function in lizards. J. Herpetol. 23:172-175.

Bauer, A. M., and D. A. Good. 1986. Scaling of scansorial surface area in the genus Gekko. Pp. 363-366 in Studies in Herpetology (Z. Rocek, ed.). Charles University, Prague.

Bauer, A. M., and A. P. Russell. 1986. Hoplodactylus delcourti n. sp. (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), the largest known gecko. New Zealand J. Zool. 13:141-148.

Bell, C. J. 1998. Synopsis of Quaternary terrestrial and non-marine aquatic faunal groups of North America. Pp. 2-597--2-604 in Dating and Earthquakes: Review of Quaternary Geochronology and its Application to Paleoseismology, NUREG/CR-5562 (J. M. Sowers, J. S. Noller, and W. R. Lettis, eds.). U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.

Bell, C. J., and J. I. Mead. 1996. Charina Gray, 1849 (Boidae: Erycinae) from the Pleistocene of California. Herpetol. Nat. Hist. 4:161-167.

Bell, C. J., and D. P. Whistler. 1996. Fossil remains of the legless lizard, Anniella Gray, 1852 from late Pleistocene deposits at Rancho La Brea, California. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 95:99-102.

Bell, D. A. 1987. Identification of perikarya in the chameleon tongue. Pp. 63-66 in Proceedings of the 4th Ordinary General Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (J. J. van Gelder, H. Strijbosch, and P. J. M. Bergers, eds.). Faculty of Sciences Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Bemis, W. E., K. Schwenk, and M. H. Wake. 1983. Morphology and function of the feeding apparatus in Dermophismexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 77:75-96.

Bennett, A. F., and M. H. Wake. 1974. Metabolic correlates of activity in the caecilian Geotrypetes seraphini. Copeia 1974:764-769.

Berry, K. H. 1974. The ecology and social behavior of the chuckwalla, Sauromalus obesus obesus Baird. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 101:1-60.

Bickham, J. W., K. A. Bjorndal, M. W. Haiduk, and W. E. Rainey. 1980. The karyotype and chromosomal banding patterns of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Copeia 1980:540-543.

Billo, R., and M. H. Wake. 1987. Tentacle development in Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia, Gymnophiona) with an hypothesis of tentacle origin. J. Morphol. 192:101-111.

Blaustein, A. R., and D. B. Wake. 1990a. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon. Trends Ecol. Evol. 5:203-204.

Blaustein, A. R., and D. B. Wake. 1990b. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Bull. Ecol. Soc. America 71:127-128.

Blaustein, A. R., and D. B. Wake. 1995. The puzzle of declining amphibian populations. Sci. Amer. 272:52-57.

Blaustein, A. R., D. B. Wake, and W. P. Sousa. 1994. Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 8:60 71.

Bolaños, F. D., D. C. Robinson, and D. B. Wake. 1987. A new species of salamander (genus Bolitoglossa) from Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 35:87-92.

Bolker, J. A. 1993a. Gastrulation and mesoderm morphogenesis in the white sturgeon. J. Exp. Zool. 266:116-131.

Bolker, J. A. 1993b. The mechanism of gastrulation in the white sturgeon. J. Exp. Zool. 266:132-145.

Bolker, J. A. 1994. Comparison of gastrulation in frogs and fish. Amer. Zool. 34:313-322.

Braker, H. E., and H. W. Greene. 1994. Population biology: life histories, abundance, demography, and predator-prey interactions. Pp. 244-255 in La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest (L. A. McDade, K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bramble, D. M., and D. B. Wake. 1985. Feeding mechanisms of lower tetrapods. Pp. 230-261 in Functional Vertebrate Morphology (M. Hildebrand, D. M. Bramble, K. F. Liem, and D. B. Wake, eds.). Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts.

Brame, A. H., Jr., and D. B. Wake. 1971. New species of salamanders (genus Bolitoglossa) from Colombia, Ecuador, and Panamá. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 219:1-34.

Brodie, E. D., III. 1993. Differential avoidance of coral snake banded patterns by free-ranging avian predators in Costa Rica. Evolution 47:227-235.

Brodie, E. D., III, and F. J. Janzen. 1995. Experimental studies of coral snake mimicry: generalized avoidance of ringed snake patterns by free-ranging avian predators. Funct. Ecol. 9:186-190.

Brown, C. W. 1968. Additional observations on the function of the nasolabial grooves of plethodontid salamanders. Copeia 1968:728-731.

Brown, C. W. 1974. Hybridization among the subspecies of the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 98:1-57.

Brown, C. W., and R. C. Stebbins. 1965. Evidence for hybridization between the blotched and unblotched subspecies of the salamander Ensatina eschscholtzi. Evolution 18:706-707.

Bryant, H. C. 1915a. Pennsylvania pays tribute to frogs, toads and salamanders. California Fish and Game 1:78-79.

Bryant, H. C. 1915b. Rattlesnakes on Catalina Island. Copeia 1915:48.

Bryant, H. C. 1917. The leopard frog in California. California Fish and Game 3:90.

Buchholz, D. R, and T. B. Hayes. 2000. Larval period comparison for the spadefoot toads Scaphiopus couchii and Spea multiplicata (Pelobatidae: Anura). Herpetologica 56:455-468.

Bunnell, P. 1973. Vocalizations in the territorial behavior of the frog Dendrobates pumilio. Copeia 1973:277-284.

Burghardt, G. M., and H. W. Greene. 1989. Predator simulation and duration of death feigning in neonate hognose snakes. Anim. Behav. 36:1842-1844.

Bury, R. B. 1970a. A biogeographic analysis of the herpetofauna of Trinity County, California. J. Herpetol. 4:165-178.

Bury, R. B. 1970b. Clemmysmarmorata (Baird and Girard), western pond turtle. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 100.1-100.3.

Bury, R. B. 1970c. Food similarities in the tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, and the Olympic salamander, Rhyacotriton olympicus. Copeia 1970:170-171.

Bury, R. B. 1972. Small mammals and other prey in the diet of the Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodonensatus). Amer. Midl. Nat. 87:524-526.

Bury, R. B., G. M. Fellers, and S. B. Ruth. 1969. First records of Plethodon dunni in California, and new distributional data on Ascaphus truei, Rhyacotritonolympicus, and Hydromantes shastae. J. Herpetol. 3:157-161.

Bury, R. B., G. C. Gorman, and J. F. Lynch. 1969. Karyotypic data for five species of anguid lizards. Experientia 25:314-316.

Bury, R. B., F. Gress, and G. C. Gorman. 1970. Karyotypic survey of some colubrid snakes from western North America. Herpetologica 26:461-466.

Bury, R. B., and R. W. Marlow. 1973. The desert tortoise: will it survive? National Parks & Conservation Magazine 47: 9-12.

Bury, R. B., and S. B. Ruth. 1972. Santa Cruz long-toed salamander: survival in doubt. Herpetol. Rev. 4:20-22.

Bury, R. B., and G. R. Stewart. 1973. California protects its herpetofauna. HISS News-Journal 11:43-47.

Busack, S. D. 1986. Biogeographic analysis of the herpetofauna separated by the formation of the Strait of Gibraltar. National Geographic Research 2:17-36.

Busack, S. D., and C. H. Ernst. 1980. Variation in mediterranean populations of Mauremys Gray 1869 (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae). Ann. Carnegie Mus. 49:251-264.

Busack, S. D., and S. B. Hedges. 1984. Is the peninsular effect a red herring? Amer. Nat. 123:266-275.

Busack, S. D., and F. M. Jaksic. 1982a. Autecological observations of Acanthodactylus erythrurus (Sauria: Lacertidae) in southern Spain. Amphibia-Reptilia 3:237-255.

Busack, S. D., and F. M. Jaksic. 1982b. Ecological and historical correlates of Iberian herpetofaunal diversity: an analysis at regional and local levels. J. Biogeogr. 9:289-302.

Busack, S. D., L. R. Maxson, and M. A. Wilson. 1985. Pelobates varaldii (Anura: Pelobatidae): a morphologically conservative species. Copeia 1985:107-112.

Busack, S. D., and A. Salvador. 1984. Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de cuatro especies de reptiles en la Provincia de Cádiz. Doñana, Acta Vertebr. 11:322-325.

Cadle, J. E. 1982. Problems and approaches in the interpretation of the evolutionary history of venomous snakes. Mem. Inst. Butantan (São Paulo) 46:255-274.

Cadle, J. E. 1984a. Molecular systematics of neotropical xenodontine snakes: I. South American xenodontines. Herpetologica 40:8-20.

Cadle, J. E. 1984b. Molecular systematics of neotropical xenodontine snakes: II. Central American xenodontines. Herpetologica 40:21-30.

Cadle, J. E. 1984c. Molecular systematics of neotropical xenodontine snakes. III. Overview of xenodontine phylogeny and the history of New World snakes. Copeia 1984:641-652.

Cadle, J. E. 1985. The neotropical colubrid snake fauna (Serpentes: Colubridae): lineage components and biogeography. Syst. Zool. 34:1-20.

Cadle, J. E. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships among advanced snakes: a molecular perspective. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 119:1-77.

Cadle, J. E., and G. C. Gorman. 1981. Albumin immunological evidence and the relationships of sea snakes. J. Herpetol. 15:329-334.

Cadle, J. E., and H. W. Greene. 1993. Phylogenetic patterns, biogeography, and the ecological structure of neotropical snake assemblages. Pp. 281-293 in Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives (R. E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Cadle, J. E., and J. L. Patton. 1988. Distribution patterns of some amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the eastern Andean slope of southern Peru. Pp. 225-244 in Proceedings of a Workshop on Neotropical Distribution Patterns (P. E. Vanzolini and W. R. Heyer, eds.). Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Cadle, J. E., and V. M. Sarich. 1981. An immunological assessment of the phylogenetic position of New World coral snakes. J. Zool. (Lond.) 195:157-167.

Camp, C. L. 1915. Batrachoseps major and Bufo cognatus californicus, new Amphibia from southern California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 12:327-334.

Camp, C. L. 1916a. Description of Bufo canorus, a new toad from the Yosemite National Park. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17:59-62.

Camp, C. L. 1916b. Notes on the local distribution and habits of the amphibians and reptiles of southeastern California, in the vicinity of the Turtle Mountains. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 12:503-544.

Camp, C. L. 1916c. Spelerpes platycephalus, a new alpine salamander from the Yosemite National Park, California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17:11-14.

Camp, C. L. 1916d. The subspecies of Sceloporus occidentalis with description of a new form from the Sierra Nevada and systematic notes on other California lizards. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17:63-74.

Camp, C. L. 1917. Notes on the systematic status of the toads and frogs of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17:115-125.

Cannatella D. C., and K. de Queiroz. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of the anoles: is a new taxonomy warranted? Syst. Zool. 38:57-69.

Cannatella, D. C., and L. Trueb. 1988. Evolution of pipoid frogs: morphology and phylogenetic relationships of Pseudhymenochirus. J. Herpetol. 22:439-456.

Carothers, J. H. 1981. Dominance and competition in an herbivorous lizard. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 8:261-266.

Carothers, J. H. 1983. Size-related activity patterns in an herbivorous lizard. Oecologia (Berl.) 57:103-106.

Carothers, J. H. 1984. Sexual selection and sexual dimorphism in some herbivorous lizards. Amer. Nat. 124:244 254.

Carothers, J. H. 1986. An experimental confirmation of morphological adaptation: toe fringes in the sand-dwelling lizard Uma scoparia. Evolution 40:871-874.

Carothers, J. H., and F. M. Jaksic. 1984. Time as a niche difference: the role of interspecific competition. Oikos 42:403-406.

Carrier, D. 1990. Activity of the hypaxial muscles during walking in the lizard Iguana iguana. J. Exp. Biol. 152:453-470.

Carrier, D. R., and M. H. Wake. 1995. Mechanism of lung ventilation in the caecilian Dermophis mexicanus. J. Morphol. 226:289-295.

Case, S. M. 1978a. Biochemical systematics of members of the genus Rana native to western North America. Syst. Zool. 27:299-311.

Case, S. M. 1978b. Electrophoretic variation in two species of ranid frogs, Rana boylei and R. muscosa. Copeia 1978:311-320.

Case, S. M., P. G. Haneline, and M. F. Smith. 1975. Protein variation in several species of Hyla. Syst. Zool. 24:281-295.

Case, S. M., and M. H. Wake. 1975. Electrophoretic patterns of certain proteins in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52B:473-476.

Case, S. M., and M. H. Wake. 1977. Immunological comparisons of caecilian albumins (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Herpetologica 33:94-98.

Chin, K., T. T. Tokaryk, G. M. Erickson, and L. C. Calk. 1998. A king-sized theropod coprolite. Nature (Lond.) 393:680-682.

Cohen, N. W. 1952. Comparative rates of dehydration and hydration in some California salamanders. Ecology 33:462-479.

Collazo, A. 1994. Molecular heterochrony in the pattern of fibronectin expression during gastrulation in amphibians. Evolution 48:2037-2045.

Collazo, A., J. A. Bolker, and R. Keller. 1994. A phylogenetic perspective on teleost gastrulation. Amer. Nat. 144:133-152.

Collazo, A., and S. B. Marks. 1994. Development of Gyrinophilus porphyriticus: identification of the ancestral developmental pattern in the salamander family Plethodontidae. J. Exp. Zool. 268:239-258.

Conant, R., F. R. Cagle, C. J. Goin, C. H. Lowe, Jr., W. T. Neill, M. G. Netting, K. P. Schmidt, C. E. Shaw, R. C. Stebbins, and C. M. Bogert. 1956. Common names for North American amphibians and reptiles. Copeia 1956:172-185.

Conant, R., R. C. Stebbins, and J. T. Collins. 1992. Peterson First Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Massachusetts.

Cook, S. F., Jr. 1955. Rattlesnake hybrids: Crotalus viridis x Crotalus scutulatus. Copeia 1955:139-141.

Cook, S. F., Jr. 1960. On the occurrence and life history of Contia tenuis. Herpetologica 16:163-173.

Crawford, A. J., and D. B. Wake. 1998. Phylogenetic and evolutionary perspectives on an enigmatic organ: the balancer of larval caudate amphibians. Zoology (Jena) 101:107-123.

Crippen, R. G. 1962a. Holotype specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. Herpetologica 18:187-194.

Crippen, R. G. 1962b. Two new insular records of amphibians from Baja California. Herpetologica 18:137.

Crump, M. L., and R. H. Kaplan. 1979. Clutch energy partitioning of tropical tree frogs (Hylidae). Copeia 1976:626-635.

Cundall, D., and H. W. Greene. 2000. Feeding in snakes. Pp. 293-332 in Feeding in Tetrapod Vertebrates: Form, Function, Phylogeny (K. Schwenk, ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Darda, D. M. 1994. Allozyme variation and morphological evolution among Mexican salamanders of the genus Chiropterotriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica 50:164-187.

Davis, J. 1966. Observations on the eggs and larvae of the salamander Batrachoseps pacificus major. Copeia 1966:272-274.

Davis, J. 1967. Growth and size of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Copeia 1967:721-731.

Davis, J. 1980. The times of mating and ovipostition of the western fence lizard, Sceloporous occidentalis occidentalis. J. Herpetol. 14:102.

Davis, J., and R. G. Ford. 1983. Home range in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis). Copeia 1983:933-940.

Davis, J., and N. A. M. Verbeek. 1972. Habitat preferences and the distribution of Uta stansburiana and Sceloporus occidentalis in coastal California. Copeia 1972:643-649.

Deban, S. M. 1997. Modulation of prey-capture behavior in the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. J. Exp. Biol. 200:1951-1964.

Deban, S. M., J. C. O'Reilly, and T. Theimer. 1994. Mechanism of defensive inflation in the chuckwalla, Sauromalus obesus. J. Exp. Biol. 270:451-459.

Deban, S. M., and D. B. Wake. 2000. Aquatic feeding in salamanders. Pp. 65-94 in Feeding: Form, Function, Phylogeny (K. Schwenk, ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Deban, S. M., D. B. Wake, and G. Roth. 1997. Salamander with a ballistic tongue. Nature (Lond.) 389:27-28.

DeLong, K. 1962. Quantitative analysis of blood circulation through the frog heart. Science (Washington, D.C.) 138:693-694.

de Queiroz, A., and K. de Queiroz. 1987. Prey handling behavior of Eumeces gilberti with comments on headfirst ingestion in squamates. J. Herpetol. 21:57-63.

de Queiroz, K. 1985. The ontogenetic method for determining character polarity and its relevance to phylogenetic systematics. Syst. Zool. 34:280-289.

de Queiroz, K. 1987a. A new spiny-tailed iguana from Honduras, with comments on relationships within Ctenosaura (Squamata: Iguania). Copeia 1987:892-902.

de Queiroz, K. 1987b. Phylogenetic systematics of iguanine lizards: a comparative osteological study. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 118:1-203.

de Queiroz, K. 1988. Systematics and the Darwinian revolution. Philos. Sci. 55:238-259.

de Queiroz, K. 1990a. Ctenosaura bakeri. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 465.1-465.2.

de Queiroz, K. 1990b. Ctenosaura oedirhina. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 466.1-466.2.

de Queiroz, K. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships and rates of allozyme evolution among the lineages of sceloporine sand lizards. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 45:333-362.

de Queiroz, K., and M. J. Donoghue. 1988. Phylogenetic systematics and the species problem. Cladistics 4:317-338.

de Queiroz, K., and M. J. Donoghue. 1990a. Phylogenetic systematics or Nelson's version of cladistics? Cladistics 6:61-75.

de Queiroz, K., and M. J. Donoghue. 1990b. Phylogenetic systematics and species revisited. Cladistics 6:83-90.

de Vlaming, V. L., and R. B. Bury. 1970. Thermal selection in tadpoles of the tailed-frog, Ascaphus truei. J. Herpetol. 4:179-189.

Dryden, G., B. Green, D. King, and J. B. Losos. 1990. Water and energy turnover in a small monitor lizard, Varanus acanthurus. Aust. Wildl. Res. 17:641-646.

Duellman, W. E., J. E. Cadle, and D. C. Cannatella. 1988. A new species of terrestrial Phyllomedusa (Anura: Hylidae) from southern Peru. Herpetologica 44:91-95.

Dünker, N., M. H. Wake, and W. M. Olson. 2000. Embryonic and larval development in the caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Amphibia, Gymnophiona): a staging table. J. Morphol. 243:3 34.

Eakin, R. M., and R. C. Stebbins. 1959. Parietal eye nerve in the fence lizard. Science (Washington, D.C.) 130:1573-1574.

Eakin, R. M., R. C. Stebbins, and D. C. Wilhoft. 1959. Effects of parietalectomy and sustained temperature on thyroid of lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 101:162-164.

Edwards, J. L. 1976. Spinal nerves and their bearing on salamander phylogeny. J. Morphol. 148:305-327.

Eichholz, M. W., and W. D. Koenig. 1992. Gopher snake attraction to birds' nests. Southwest. Nat. 37:293-298.

Elias, P. 1984. Salamanders of the northwestern highlands of Guatemala. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 348:1-20.

Elias, P., and D. B. Wake. 1983. Nyctanolis pernix, a new genus and species of plethodontid salamander from northwestern Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. Pp. 1-12 in Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology: Essays in Honor of Ernest E. Williams (G. J. Rhodin and K. Miyata, eds.). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Endler, J. 1970. Kinesthetic orientation in the California newt (Taricha torosa). Behaviour 37:15-23.

Erickson, G. M., and C. A. Brochu. 1999. How the 'terror crocodile' grew so big. Nature (Lond.) 398:205-206.

Esteban, M., M. García-París, D. Buckley, and J. Castanet. 1999. Bone growth and age in Rana saharica, a water frog living in a desert environment. Ann. Zool. Fennici 36:53-62.

Estes, R., K. de Queiroz, and J. Gauthier. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships within Squamata. Pp. 119-281 in Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: Essays Commemorating Charles L. Camp (R. Estes and G.Pregill, eds.). Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Etheridge, R., and K. de Queiroz. 1988. A phylogeny of Iguanidae. Pp. 283-367 in Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: Essays Commemorating Charles L. Camp (R. Estes and G.Pregill, eds.). Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Feder, J. H. 1979. Natural hybridization and genetic divergence between the toads Bufo boreas and Bufo punctatus. Evolution 33:1089-1097.

Feder, J. H., G. Z. Wurst, and D. B. Wake. 1978. Genetic variation in western salamanders of the genus Plethodon, and the status of Plethodon gordoni. Herpetologica 34:64-69.

Feder, M. E. 1976a. Lunglessness, body size, and metabolic rate in salamanders. Physiol. Zool. 49:398-406.

Feder, M. E. 1976b. Oxygen consumption and body temperature in neotropical and temperate zone lungless salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). J. Comp. Physiol. 110:197-208.

Feder, M. E. 1977. Oxygen consumption and activity in salamanders: effect of body size and lunglessness. J. Exp. Zool. 202:403-413.

Feder, M. E. 1978a. Effect of temperature on post-activity oxygen consumption in lunged and lungless salamanders. J. Exp. Zool. 206:179-190.

Feder, M. E. 1978b. Environmental variability and thermal acclimation in neotropical and temperate zone salamanders. Physiol. Zool. 51:7-16.

Feder, M. E. 1982. Thermal ecology of neotropical lungless salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): environmental temperatures and behavioral responses. Ecology 63:1665-1674.

Feder, M. E., and J. F. Lynch. 1982. Effects of latitude, season, elevation, and microhabitat on field body temperatures of neotropical and temperate zone salamanders. Ecology 63:1657-1664.

Feder, M. E., J. F. Lynch, H. B. Shaffer, and D. B. Wake. 1982. Field body temperatures of tropical and temperate zone salamanders. Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv. 52:1-23.

Feder, M. E., T. J. Papenfuss, and D. B. Wake. 1982. Body size and elevation in neotropical salamanders. Copeia 1982:186-188.

Fenchel, T. M., C. P. McRoy, J. C. Ogden, P. Parker, and W. E. Rainey. 1979. Symbiotic cellulose degradation in green turtles, Chelonia mydas L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:348-350.

Fine, P. V. A. 1999. Aerial predator recognition by free-ranging Sceloporus occidentalis. J. Herpetol. 33:128-131.

Fisher, E. M. 1925. Notes on the breeding of the California gopher snake in captivity. Copeia 137:108-109.

Fisher, E. M. 1928a. Note on a two-headed specimen of the Pacific garter snake. Copeia 167:40-42.

Fisher, E. M. 1928b. Variation within a brood of Pacific garter snakes. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 30:221-229.

Fitch, H. S. 1934a. New alligator lizards from the Pacific coast. Copeia 1934:6-7.

Fitch, H. S. 1934b. A shift of specific names in the genus Gerrhonotus. Copeia 1934:172-173.

Fitch, H. S. 1935b. An abnormal pattern in a gopher snake. Copeia 1935:144-146.

Fitch, H. S. 1935b. Natural history of the alligator lizards. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 29:1-38.

Fitch, H. S. 1936. Amphibians and reptiles of the Rogue River Basin, Oregon. Amer. Midl. Nat. 17:634-652.

Fitch, H. S. 1938a. A systematic account of the alligator lizards (Gerrhonotus) in the western United States and Lower California. Amer. Midl. Nat. 20:381-424.

Fitch, H. S. 1938b. An older name for Triturus similans Twitty. Copeia 1938:148-149.

Fitch, H. S. 1938c. Ranaboylii in Oregon. Copeia 1938:148.

Fitch, H. S. 1939a. Desert reptiles in Lassen Co., California. Herpetologica 1:151-152.

Fitch, H. S. 1939b. Leptodeira in northern California. Herpetologica 1:152-153.

Fitch, H. S. 1940a. A biogeographical study of the ordinoides artenkreis of garter snakes (genus Thamnophis). Univ. California Publ. Zool. 44:1-149.

Fitch, H. S. 1940b. A field study of the growth and behavior of the fence lizard. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 44:151-172.

Fitch, H. S. 1941. Geographic variation in garter snakes of the species Thamnophis sirtalis in the Pacific coast region of North America. Amer. Midl. Nat. 26:570-592.

Fox, W. 1948a. Effect of temperature on development of scutellation in the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans atratus. Copeia 1948:252-262.

Fox, W. 1948b. The relationships of the garter snake Thamnophis ordinoides. Copeia 1948:113-120.

Fox, W. 1951. Relationships among the garter snakes of the Thamnophis elegans rassenkreis. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 50:485-529.

Fox, W. 1952. Seasonal variation in the male reproductive system of Pacific coast garter snakes. J. Morphol. 90:481-554.

Fox, W. 1954. Genetic and environmental variation in the timing of the reproductive cycles of male garter snakes. J. Morphol. 95:415-450.

Fritzsch, B., and M. H. Wake. 1986. The distribution of ampullary organs in Gymnophiona. J. Herpetol. 20:90-93.

Fritzsch, B., and M. H. Wake. 1988. The inner ear of gymnophione amphibians and its nerve supply: a comparative study of regressive events in a complex sensory system (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zoomorphology 108:201-217.

Fuentes, E. R., and F. M. Jaksic. 1980. Ecological species replacement of Liolaemus lizards along a habitat gradient. Oecologia (Berl.) 46:45-48.

Garcea R., and G. C. Gorman. 1968. A difference in male territorial display behavior in two sibling species of Anolis. Copeia 1968:419-420.

García-París, M., M. Alcobendas, and P. Alberch. 1998. Influence of the Guadalquivir River basin on mitochondrial DNA evolution of Salamandra salamandra (Caudata: Salamandridae) from southern Spain. Copeia 1998:173-176.

García-París, M., and S. M. Deban. 1995. A novel antipredator mechanism in salamanders: rolling escape in Hydromantes platycephalus. J. Herpetol. 29:149-151.

García-París, M., D. A. Good, G. Parra-Olea, and D. B. Wake. 2000. Biodiversity of Costa Rican salamanders: implications of high levels of genetic differentiation and phylogeographic structure for species formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1640-1647.

García-París, M., and E. L. Jockusch. 1999. A mitochondrial DNA perspective on the evolution of Iberian Discoglossus (Amphibia: Anura). J. Zool. (Lond.) 248:209-218.

García-París, M., G. Parra-Olea, and D. B. Wake. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the lowland tropical salamanders of the Bolitoglossa mexicana complex. Pp. 199-214 in The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders (R. C. Bruce, R. G. Jaeger, and L. D. Houck, eds.). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

García-París, M., and D. B. Wake. 2000. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of relationships of the tropical salamander genera Oedipina and Nototriton, with descriptions of a new genus and three new species. Copeia 2000:42-70.

Gauthier, J., D. Cannatella, K. de Queiroz, A. Kluge, and T. Rowe. 1989. Tetrapod phylogeny. Pp. 337-353 in The Hierarchy of Life: Molecules and Morphology in Phylogenetic Analysis (B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, and H. Jörnvall, eds.). Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.

Gauthier, J., R. Estes, and K. de Queiroz. 1988. A phylogenetic analysis of Lepidosauromorpha. Pp. 15-98 in Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: Essays Commemorating Charles L. Camp (R. Estes and G.Pregill, eds.). Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Glaser, R. 1955. A rock in the intestinal tract of the snake Hypsiglena. Copeia 1955:248.

Glaser, R. 1958. Increase in locomotor activity following shielding of the parietal eye in night lizards. Science (Washington, D.C.) 128:1577-1578.

Good, D. A. 1987a. A phylogenetic analysis of cranial osteology in the gerrhonotine lizards. J. Herpetol. 21:285-297.

Good, D. A. 1987b. An allozyme analysis of anguid subfamilial relationships (Lacertilia: Anguidae). Copeia 1987:696-701.

Good, D. A. 1988a. Allozyme variation and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Elgaria (Squamata: Anguidae). Herpetologica 44:154-162.

Good, D. A. 1988b. Phylogenetic relationships among gerrhonotine lizards: an analysis of external morphology. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 121:1-137.

Good, D. A. 1988c. The phylogenetic position of fossils assigned to the Gerrhonotinae (Squamata: Anguidae). J. Vert. Paleontol. 8:188-195.

Good, D. A. 1989a. Allozyme variation and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Mesaspis (Squamata: Anguidae). Herpetologica 45:227-232.

Good, D. A. 1989b. Hybridization and cryptic species in Dicamptodon (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Evolution 43:728-744.

Good, D. A., and K. Schwenk. 1985. A new species of Abronia (Lacertilia: Anguidae) from Oaxaca, Mexico. Copeia 1985:135-141.

Good, D. A., and D. B. Wake. 1992. Geographic variation and speciation in the torrent salamanders of the genus Rhyacotriton (Caudata: Rhyacotritonidae). Univ. California Publ. Zool. 126:1-91.

Good, D. A., and D. B. Wake. 1993. Systematic studies of the Costa Rican moss salamanders, genus Nototriton, with descriptions of three new species. Herpetol. Monogr. 7:131-159.

Good, D. A., and D. B. Wake. 1997. Phylogenetic and taxonomic implications of protein variation in the Mesoamerican salamander genus Oedipina (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 45:1185-1208.

Good, D. A., and J. W. Wright. 1984. Allozymes and the hybrid origin of the parthenogenetic lizard Cnemidophorusexsanguis. Experientia 40:1012-1014.

Good, D. A., G. Z. Wurst, and D. B. Wake. 1987. Patterns of geographic variation in allozymes of the Olympic salamander, Rhyacotriton olympicus (Caudata: Dicamptodontidae). Fieldiana, Zool. (new ser.) 32:1-15.

Gorman, G. C. 1968a. Confirmation of an X-Y sex determining mechanism in lizards (Anolis). Copeia 1968:159-160.

Gorman, G. C. 1968b. The chromosomes of Anolis chrysolepis scypheus from a developing egg. Herpetologica 24:263-264.

Gorman, G. C. 1969a. Chromosomes of three species of anoline lizards in the genera Anolis and Tropidodactylus. Mammal. Chromosomes Newslett. 10:222-224.

Gorman, G. C. 1969b. Intermediate territorial display of a hybrid Anolis lizard (Sauria: Iguanidae). Z. Tierpsychol. 26:390-393.

Gorman, G. C. 1969c. New chromosome data for 12 species of lacertid lizards. J. Herpetol. 3:49-54.

Gorman, G. C. 1970. Chromosomes and the systematics of the family Teiidae (Sauria, Reptilia). Copeia 1970:230-245.

Gorman, G. C. 1971. Evolutionary genetics of island lizard populations. Year Book Amer. Philos. Soc. 1971:318-319.

Gorman, G. C. 1973. The chromosomes of the Reptilia, a cytotaxonomic interpretation. Pp. 349-424 in Cytotaxonomy and Vertebrate Evolution (A. B. Chiarelli and E. Capanna, eds.). Academic Press, London.

Gorman, G. C., and L. Atkins. 1968a. Confirmation of an X-Y sex determining mechanism in lizards (Anolis). Copeia 1968:159 160.

Gorman, G. C., and L. Atkins. 1968b. Natural hybridization between two sibling species of Anolis lizards: chromosome cytology. Science (Washington, D.C.) 159:1358-1360.

Gorman, G. C., and L. Atkins. 1968c. New karyotypic data for 16 species of Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae) from Cuba, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands. Herpetologica 24:13-21.

Gorman, G. C., and L. Atkins. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards: an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 138:53-80.

Gorman, G. C., and F. Gress. 1970a. Chromosome cytology of four boid snakes and a varanid lizard, with comments on the cytosystematics of primitive snakes. Herpetologica 26:308-317.

Gorman, G. C., and F. Gress. 1970b. Sex chromosomes of a pygopodid lizard, Lialis burtonis. Experientia 26:206-207.

Gorman, G. C., R. B. Huey, and E. E. Williams. 1969. Cytotaxonomic studies on some unusual iguanid lizards assigned to the genera Chamaeleolis, Polychrus, Polychroides, and Phenacosaurus, with behavioral notes. Breviora 316:1-17.

Gorman, G. C., V. Jovanovic, E. Nevo, and F. C. McCollum. 1970. Conservative karyotypes among lizards of the genus Lacerta from the Adriatic Islands. Genetika 2:149-154.

Gorman, G. C., Y. J. Kim, and S. Y. Yang. 1978. The genetics of colonization: loss of variability among introduced populations of Anolis lizards (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae). J. Herpetol. 12:47-51.

Gorman, G. C., and P. Licht. 1973. Sexual dimorphism in body size and ovarian activity in the lizard Anoliscarolinensis. Amer. Midl. Nat. 90:235-239.

Gorman, G. C., P. Licht, H. C. Dessauer, and J. O. Boos. 1971. Reproductive failure among the hybridizing Anolis lizards of Trinidad. Syst. Zool. 20:1-18.

Gorman, G. C., P. Licht, and F. McCollum. 1981. Annual reproductive patterns in three species of marine snakes from the central Phillippines. J. Herpetol. 15:335-354.

Gorman, G. C., and D. Schochat. 1972a. A taxonomic interpretation of chromosomal and electrophoretic data on the agamid lizards of Israel with notes on some East African species. Herpetologica 28:106-112.

Gorman, G. C., and D. Schochat. 1972b. Multiple lactate dehydrogenase alleles in the lizard Agama stellio. Experientia 28:351-353.

Gorman, G. C., and T. W. Schoener. 1968. Some niche differences in three lesser Antillean lizards of the genus Anolis. Ecology 49:819-830.

Gorman, G. C., M. Soulé, S.-Y. Yang, and E. Nevo. 1975. Evolutionary genetics of insular Adriatic lizards. Evolution 29:52-71.

Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson, and M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Syst. Zool. 20:167-185.

Gorman, J. 1951. Northward range extension of the salamander Triturus sierrae. Copeia 1951:78.

Gorman, J. 1954. A new species of salamander from central California. Herpetologica 10:153-158.

Gorman, J. 1956. Reproduction in plethodont salamanders of the genus Hydromantes. Herpetologica 12:249-259.

Gorman, J., and C. L. Camp. 1953. A new cave species of salamander of the genus Hydromantes from California, with notes on habits and habitat. Copeia 1953:39-43.

Graybeal, A. 1993. The phylogenetic utility of cytochrome b: lessons from bufonid frogs. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 2:256-269.

Graybeal, A. 1994. Evaluating the phylogenetic utility of genes: a search for genes informative about deep divergences among vertebrates. Syst. Biol. 43:174-193.

Graybeal, A. 1995. Naming species. Syst. Biol. 44:237-250.

Graybeal, A. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of bufonid frogs and tests of alternate macroevolutionary hypotheses characterizing their radiation. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 119:297-338.

Graybeal, A., and D. C. Cannatella. 1995. A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa. Herpetologica 51:105-131.

Graybeal, A., and K. de Queiroz. 1992. Inguinal amplexus in Bufo fastidiosus, with comments on the systematics of bufonid frogs. J. Herpetol. 26:84-87.

Green, D. M. 1982. Mating call characteristics of hybrid toads (Bufo americanus x B. fowleri) at Long Point, Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 60:3293-3297.

Green, D. M. 1983a. Allozyme variation through a clinal hybrid zone between the toads Bufo americanus and B. hemiophyrs in southeastern Manitoba. J. Herpetol. 39:28-40.

Green, D. M. 1983b. Evidence for chromosome number reduction and chromosomal homosequentiality in the 24-chromosome Korean form Rana dybowskii and related species. Chromosoma (Berl.) 88:222-226.

Green, D. M. 1984. Sympatric hybridization and allozyme variation in the toads Bufo americanus and B. fowleri in southern Ontario. Copeia 1984:18-26.

Green, D. M. 1985. Biochemical identification of red-legged frogs, Rana aurora draytoni (Ranidae) at Duckwater, Nevada. Southwest. Nat. 30:613-616.

Green, D. M. 1986a. Systematics and evolution of western North American frogs allied to Rana aurora and Rana boylii: karyological evidence. Syst. Zool. 35:273-282.

Green, D. M. 1986b. Systematics and evolution of western North American frogs allied to Rana aurora and Rana boylii: electrophoretic evidence. Syst. Zool. 35:283-292.

Green, D. M., and P. Alberch. 1981. Interdigital webbing and skin morphology in the neotropical salamander genus Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). J. Morphol. 170:273-282.

Green, D. M., and D. M. Delisle. 1985. Allotriploidy in natural hybrid frogs, Rana chiricahuensis x R. pipiens, from Arizona: chromosomes and electrophoretic evidence. J. Herpetol. 19:385-390.

Green, D. M., J. Kezer, and R. A. Nussbaum. 1984. Triploidy in Hochstetter's frog, Leiopelma hochstetteri, from New Zealand. New Zealand J. Zool. 11:457-460.

Greene, H. W. 1979. Behavioral convergence in the defensive displays of snakes. Experientia 35:747-748.

Greene, H. W. 1980. Evolutionary biology of the dwarf boas (Serpentes: Tropidophiidae). Year Book Amer. Philos. Soc. 1979:206-207.

Greene, H. W. 1982. Dietary and phenotypic diversity in lizards: why are some organisms specialized? Pp. 107-128 in Environmental Adaptation and Evolution: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach (D. Mossakowski and G. Roth, eds.). Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany.

Greene, H. W. 1983a. Boaconstrictor (boa, béquer, boa constrictor). Pp. 380-382 in Costa Rican Natural History (D. H. Janzen, ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Greene, H. W. 1983b. Dietary correlates of the origin and radiation of snakes. Amer. Zool. 23:431-441.

Greene, H. W. 1984a. Feeding behavior and diet of the eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius. Pp. 147-162 in Vertebrate Ecology and Systematics--A Tribute to Henry S. Fitch (R. A. Seigel, L. E. Hunt, J. L. Knight, L. Malaret, and N. L. Zuschlag, eds.). Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Greene, H. W. 1984b. Taxonomic status of the western racer, Coluber constrictor mormon. J. Herpetol. 18:210-211.

Greene, H. W. 1986a. Diet and arboreality in the emerald monitor, Varanus prasinus, with comments on the study of adaptation. Fieldiana, Zool. (new ser.) 31:1-12.

Greene, H. W. 1986b. Natural history and evolutionary biology. Pp. 99-108 in Predator-Prey Relationships: Perspectives and Approaches from the Study of Lower Vertebrates (M. E. Feder and G. V. Lauder, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Greene, H. W. 1986c. Salamanders now and then. Pacific Discovery 39:31-35.

Greene, H. W. 1987. Antipredator mechanisms in reptiles. Pp. 1-152 in Biology of the Reptilia, Vol. 16, Ecology B: Defense and Life History (C. Gans and R. B. Huey, eds.). Alan R. Liss, New York.

Greene, H. W. 1989a. Defensive behavior and feeding biology of the Asian mock viper, Psammodynastes pulverulentus (Colubridae), a specialized predator on scincid lizards. Chinese Herpetol. Res. 2:21-32.

Greene, H. W. 1989b. Ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications of feeding biology in Old World cat snakes, genus Boiga (Colubridae). Proc. California Acad. Sci. 46:193-207.

Greene, H. W. 1990. A sound defense of the rattlesnake. Pacific Discovery 43:10-19.

Greene, H. W. 1992. The ecological and behavioral context for pitviper evolution. Pp. 107-117 in Biology of the Pitvipers (J. A. Campbell and E. D. Brodie, Jr., eds.). Selva, Tyler, Texas.

Greene, H. W. 1993. What's good about good natural history? Herpetol. Nat. Hist. 1:3.

Greene, H. W. 1994a. Homology and behavioral repertoires. Pp. 369-391 in Homology: The Hierarchical Basis of Comparative Biology (B. K. Hall, ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Greene, H. W. 1994b. Systematics and natural history, foundations for understanding and conserving biodiversity. Amer. Zool. 34:48-56.

Greene, H. W. 1995. Nonavian reptiles as laboratory animals. ILAR J. 37:182-186.

Greene, H. W. 1997a. Foreword to the 1997 printing. Pp. xi-xxiii in Klauber, L. M. Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind, Vol. I, 2nd. ed. University of California Press, Berkeley. 740 Pp.

Greene, H. W. 1997b. Snakes: The Evolution of Mystery in Nature. University of California Press, Berkeley. 351 pp.

Greene, H. W. 1999a. Foreword. Pp. ix-xi in McDiarmid, R. W., J. A. Campbell, and T. Touré. Snake Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Vol. 1. The Herpetologists' League, Washington, D.C.

Greene, H. W. 1999b. Living with snakes. Pp. xv-xix in Problem Snake Management: The Habu and the Brown Treesnake (G. H. Rodda, Y. Sawai, D. Chiszar, and H. Tanaka, eds.). Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York.

Greene, H. W. 1999c. Natural history and behavioural homology. Pp. 173-188 in Homology (G. R. Bock and G. Cardew, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.

Greene, H. W., and J. A. Campbell. 1992. The future of pitvipers. Pp. 421-427 in Biology of the Pitvipers (J. A. Campbell and E. D. Brodie, Jr., eds.). Selva, Tyler, Texas.

Greene, H. W., and D. L. Hardy. 1989. Natural death associated with skeletal injury in the terciopelo, Bothrops asper (Viperidae). Copeia 1989:1036-1037.

Greene, H. W., and F. M. Jaksic. 1983. Food-niche relationships among sympatric predators: effects of level of prey identification. Oikos 40:151-154.

Greene, H. W., and F. M. Jaksic. 1992. The feeding behavior and natural history of two Chilean snakes, Philodryas chamissonis and Tachymenis chilensis (Colubridae). Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat. 65:485-493.

Greene, H. W., and C. Luke. 1992. Amphibian and reptile diversity in the east Mojave Desert. Pp. 53-58 in Proceedings of the East Mojave Desert Symposium (C. Luke, J. André, and M. Herring, eds.). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California.

Greene, H. W., and R. W. McDiarmid. 1981. Coral snake mimicry: does it occur? Science (Washington, D.C.) 213:1207-1212.

Greene, H. W., and R. L. Seib. 1983. Micrurus nigrocinctus (coral, coral snake, coralillo). Pp. 406-408 in Costa Rican Natural History (D. H. Janzen, ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Greer, A. E. 1976a. Notes on the systematics of the genus Carlia (Lacertilia: Scincidae). II. Carliaperoni (Dumeril and Bibron 1839). Herpetologica 32:371-377.

Greer, A. E. 1976b. On the evolution of the giant Cape Verde scindid lizard Macroscincus coctei. J. Nat. Hist. 10:691-712.

Greer, A. E. 1976c. On the occurrence of a stapedial foramen in living non-gekkonid lepidosaurs. Copeia 1976:591-592.

Greer, A. E. 1977. The systematics and evolutionary relationships of the scincid lizard genus Lygosoma. J. Nat. Hist. 11:515-540.

Gressitt, J. L. 1936. New reptiles from Formosa and Hainan. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 49:117-121.

Gressitt, J. L. 1937. A new snake from southeastern China. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 50:125-128.

Gressitt, J. L. 1938a. A new burrowing frog and a new lizard from Hainan Island. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 51:127-130.

Gressitt, J. L. 1938b. Some amphibians from Formosa and the Ryu Kyu Islands, with description of a new species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 51:159-164.

Grinnell, J. 1908. The biota of the San Bernardino Mountains. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 5:1 170.

Grinnell, J. 1915. The vertebrate fauna of the Pacific Coast. Pp. 104-114 in Nature and Science on the Pacific Coast: A Guide-Book for Scientific Travelers in the West (J. Grinnell, ed.). Paul Elder and Company Publishers, San Francisco, California.

Grinnell, J. 1916. An analysis of the vertebrate fauna of the Trinity region of northern California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 12:399-410.

Grinnell, J., and C. L. Camp. 1917. A distributional list of the amphibians and reptiles of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17:127-208.

Grinnell, J., J. Dixon and J. M. Linsdale. 1930. Vertebrate natural history of a section of northern California through the Lassen Peak region. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 35:1-594.

Grinnell, J., and J. M. Linsdale. 1936. Vertebrate animals of Point Lobos Reserve, 1934-35. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 481:1-159.

Grinnell, J., and T. I. Storer. 1921. Reptiles and amphibians of Yosemite National Park. Pp. 175-182 in Hall's Handbook of Yosemite National Park: A Compendium of Articles on the Yosemite Region by the Leading Scientific Authorities (A. F. Hall, ed.). G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.

Grinnell, J., and T. I. Storer. 1924. Animal Life in the Yosemite: An Account of the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Amphibians in a Cross-section of the Sierra Nevada. University of California Press, Berkeley. 752 pp.

Haddad, C. F. B., and A. A. Giaretta. 1999. Visual and acoustic communication in the Brazilian torrent frog, Hylodes asper (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Herpetologica 55:324-333.

Haddad, C. F. B., and J. P. Pombal, Jr. 1998. Redescription of Physalaemus spiniger (Anura: Leptodactylidae) and description of two new reproductive modes. J. Herpetol. 32:557-565.

Hall, E. R. 1929. A "den" of rattlesnakes in eastern Nevada. Bull. Antivenin Inst. Amer. 3:79-80.

Hanken, J. 1979. Egg development time and clutch size in two neotropical salamanders. Copeia 1979:741-744.

Hanken, J. 1982. Appendicular skeletal morphology in minute salamanders, genus Thorius (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): growth regulation, adult size determination, and natural variation. J. Morphol. 174:57-77.

Hanken, J. 1983a. Genetic variation in a dwarfed lineage, the Mexican salamander genus Thorius (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): taxonomic, ecologic and evolutionary implications. Copeia 1983:1051-1073.

Hanken, J. 1983b. Miniaturization and its effects on cranial morphology in plethodontid salamanders, genus Thorius (Amphibia, Plethodontidae): II. The fate of the brain and sense organs and their role in skull morphogenesis and evolution. J. Morphol. 177:255-268.

Hanken, J. 1984. Miniaturization and its effects on cranial morphology in plethodontid salamanders, genus Thorius (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). I. Osteological variation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 23:55-75.

Hanken, J., J. F. Lynch, and D. B. Wake. 1980. Salamander invasion of the tropics. Natural History 89:46-53.

Hanken, J., and D. B. Wake. 1982. Genetic differentiation among plethodontid salamanders (genus Bolitoglossa) in Central and South America: implications for the South American invasion. Herpetologica 38:272-287.

Hanken, J., and D. B. Wake. 1993. Miniaturization of body size: organismal consequences and evolutionary significance. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24:501-519.

Hanken, J., and D. B. Wake. 1994. Five new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from northern Oaxaca, Mexico. Copeia 1994:573-590.

Hanken, J., and D. B. Wake. 1998. Biology of tiny animals: systematics of the minute salamanders (Thorius: Plethodontidae) from Veracruz and Puebla, México, with descriptions of five new species. Copeia 1998:312-345.

Hanken, J., D. B. Wake, and H. L. Freeman. 1999. Three new species of minute salamanders (Thorius: Plethodontidae) from Guerrero, México, including the report of a novel dental polymorphism in urodeles. Copeia 1999:917-931.

Hardy, D. L., Sr., and H. W. Greene. 1995. Natural History Notes: Crotalus molossus molossus (blacktail rattlesnake). Maximum length. Herpetol. Rev. 26:101.

Hayes, T. B. 1997a. Amphibian metamorphosis: an integrative approach. Amer. Zool. 37:121 123.

Hayes, T. B. 1997b. Hormonal mechanisms as potential constraints on evolution: examples from the Anura. Amer. Zool. 37:482-490.

Hayes, T. B. 1997c. Steroid-mimicking environmental contaminants: their potential role in amphibian declines. Pp. 145-149 in Herpetologia Bonnensis: Proceedings of the 8th Ordinary General Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (W. Bohme, ed.). Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn.

Hayes, T. B. 1997d. Steroids as potential modulators of thyroid hormone activity in anuran metamorphosis. Amer. Zool. 37:185-194.

Hayes, T. B., and K. P. Menéndez. 1999. The effect of sex steroids on primary and secondary sex differentiation in the sexually dichromatic reedfrog (Hyperolius argus: Hyperoliidae) from the Arabuko Sokoke Forest of Kenya. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 115:188-199.

Hayes, T. B., T. H. Wu, and T. N. Gill. 1997. DDT-like effects as a result of corticosterone treatment in an anuran amphibian: is DDT a corticoid mimic or a stressor? Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16:1948-1953.

Hendrickson, J. R. 1954. Ecology and systematics of salamanders of the genus Batrachoseps. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 54:1-46.

Hess, N. E., and J. B. Losos. 1991. Interspecific aggression between Anolis cristatellus and A. gundlachi: comparison of sympatric and allopatric populations. J. Herpetol. 25:256-259.

Hetherington, T. E., and M. H. Wake. 1979. The lateral line system in larval Ichthyophis (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zoomorphologie 93:209-225.

Highton, R., and A. Larson. 1979. The genetic relationships of the salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Syst. Zool. 28:579-599.

Houck, L. D. 1977a. Life history patterns and reproductive biology of neotropical salamanders. Pp. 43-72 in The Reproductive Biology of Amphibians (D. H. Taylor and S. I. Guttman, eds.). Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.

Houck, L. D. 1977b. Reproductive biology of a neotropical salamander, Bolitoglossa rostrata. Copeia 1977:70-83.

Huey, R. B., and E. R. Pianka. 1977. Natural selection for juvenile lizards mimicking noxious beetles. Science (Washington, D.C.) 195:201-203.

Huey, R. B., and E. R. Pianka with an Appendix by J. A. Hoffman. 1977. Seasonal variation in thermoregulatory behavior and body temperature of diurnal Kalahari lizards. Ecology 58:1066-1075.

Ipsen, D. C., R. C. Stebbins, and G. Gillfillan. 1966a. Animal Coloration, An Introduction to Natural Selection. Part II. Advertising Coloration. Elementary School Science Project, University of California, Berkeley. 35 pp.

Ipsen, D. C., R. C. Stebbins, and G. Gillfillan. 1966b. Animal Colors That Advertise. Elementary School Science Project, University of California, Berkeley. 42 pp.

Jackman, T. R. 1998. Molecular and historical evidence for the introduction of clouded salamanders (genus Aneides) to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, from California. Can. J. Zool. 76:1570-1580.

Jackman, T. R., G. Applebaum, and D. B. Wake. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of bolitoglossine salamanders: a demonstration of the effects of combining morphological and molecular data sets. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:883-891.

Jackman, T. R., and D. B. Wake. 1994. Evolutionary and historical analysis of protein variation in the blotched forms of salamanders of the Ensatina complex (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). Evolution 48:876-897.

Jaksic, F. M. 1981. Recognition of morphological adaptations in animals: the hypothetico-deductive method. BioScience 31:667-670.

Jaksic, F. M., and S. D. Busack. 1984. Apparent inadequacy of tail-loss figures as estimates of predation upon lizards. Amphibia-Reptilia 5:177-179.

Jaksic, F. M., and H. W. Greene. 1984. Empirical evidence of non-correlation between tail loss frequency and predation intensity on lizards. Oikos 42:407-411.

Jaksic, F. M., H. W. Greene, K. Schwenk, and R. L. Seib. 1982. Predation upon reptiles in Mediterranean habitats of Chile, Spain, and California: a comparative analysis. Oecologia (Berl.) 53:152-159.

Jaksic, F. M., H. W. Greene, and J. L. Yáñez. 1981. The guild structure of a community of predatory vertebrates in central Chile. Oecologia (Berl.) 49:21-28.

Jaksic, F. M., H. Núñez, and F. P. Ojeda. 1980. Body proportions, microhabitat selection, and adaptive radiation of Liolaemus lizards in central Chile. Oecologia (Berl.) 45:178-181.

Jaksic, F. M., and K. Schwenk. 1983. Natural history observations on Liolaemus magellanicus, the southernmost lizard in the world. Herpetologica 39:457-461.

James, C. D., and J. B. Losos. 1991. Diet and reproductive biology of the Australian sand swimming lizards, Eremiascincus (Scincidae). Wildl. Res. 18:641-654.

James, C. D., J. B. Losos, and D. R. King. 1992. Reproductive biology and diets of goannas (Reptilia, Varanidae) from Australia. J. Herpetol. 26:128-136.

Janzen, F. J., G. L. Paukstis, and E. D. Brodie III. 1992. Observations on basking behavior of hatchling turtles in the wild. J. Herpetol. 26:217-219.

Jockusch, E. L. 1996. Techniques for obtaining and raising plethodontid salamander eggs. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 40:911-912.

Jockusch, E. L. 1997a. An evolutionary correlate of genome size change in plethodontid salamanders. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 264:597-604.

Jockusch, E. L. 1997b. Geographic variation and phenotypic plasticity of number of trunk vertebrae in slender salamanders, Batrachoseps (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Evolution 51:1966-1982.

Jockusch, E. L., and M. García-París. 1998. Natural History Notes: Nototriton abscondens (cordilleran moss salamander). Reproduction. Herpetol. Rev. 29:38.

Jockusch, E. L., and M. J. Mahoney. 1997. Communal oviposition and lack of parental care in Batrachoseps nigriventris (Caudata: Plethodontidae) with a discussion of the evolution of breeding behavior in plethodontid salamanders. Copeia 1997:697-705.

Jockusch, E. L., D. B. Wake, and K. P. Yanev. 1998. New species of slender salamanders, Batrachoseps (Amphibia: Plethodontidae), from the Sierra Nevada of California. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 472:1-17.

Johnson, D. H., M. D. Bryant, and A. H. Miller. 1948. Vertebrate animals of the Providence Mountains area of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 48:221-375.

Kaplan, R. H. 1979. Ontogenetic variation in "ovum" size in two species of Ambystoma. Copeia 1979:348-50.

Kaplan, R. H. 1980a. Ontogenetic energetics in Ambystoma. Physiol. Zool. 53:43-56.

Kaplan, R. H. 1980b. The implications of ovum size variability for offspring fitness and clutch size within several populations of salamanders (Ambystoma). Evolution 34:51-64.

Kaplan, R. H., and W. S. Cooper. 1984. The evolution of developmental plasticity in reproductive characteristics: an application of the "adaptive coin-flipping" principle. Amer. Nat. 123:393-410.

Kaplan, R. H., and S. N. Salthe. 1979. The allometry of reproduction: an empirical view in salamanders. Amer. Nat. 113:671-689.

Kaplan, R. H., and P. W. Sherman. 1980. Intraspecific oophagy in California newts. J. Herpetol. 14:183-185.

Karlstrom, E. L. 1957. Use of CO2 as a tag for recovering amphibians in the field. Ecology 38:187-195.

Karlstrom, E. L. 1962. The toad genus Bufo in the Sierra Nevada of California: ecological and systematic relationships. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 62:1-104.

Karlstrom, E. L., and S. F. Cook, Jr. 1955. Notes on snake anesthesia. Copeia 1955:57-58.

Karlstrom, E. L., and R. L. Livezey. 1955. The eggs and larvae of the Yosemite toad Bufo canorus Camp. Herpetologica 11:221-227.

Kezer, J., and S. K. Sessions. 1979. Chromosome variation in the plethodontid salamander, Aneides ferreus. Chromosoma (Berl.) 71:65-80.

Kezer, J., S. K. Sessions, and P. León. 1989. The meiotic structure and behavior of the strongly heteromorphic X/Y sex chromosomes of neotropical plethodontid salamanders of the genus Oedipina. Chromosoma (Berl.) 98:433-442.

Kim, Y. L., G. C. Gorman, and R. B. Huey. 1978. Genetic variation and differentiation in two species of the fossorial African skink Typhlosaurus (Sauria: Scincidae). J. Herpetol. 12:121-133.

Kim, Y. J., G. C. Gorman, T. Papenfuss, and A. K. Roychoudhury. 1976. Genetic relationships and genetic variation in the amphisbaenian genus Bipes. Copeia 1976:120-124.

Klosterman, L. L. 1983. The ultrastructure of germinal beds in the ovary of Gerrhonotus coeruleus (Reptilia: Anguidae). J. Morphol. 178:247-265.

Klosterman, L. L. 1987. Ultrastructural and quantitative dynamics of the granulosa of ovarian follicles of the lizard Gerrhonotus coeruleus (family Anguidae). J. Morphol. 192:125-144.

Kocher, T. D., and R. D. Sage. 1986. Further genetic analysis of a hybrid zone between leopard frogs (Ranapipiens complex) in central Texas. Evolution 40:21-33.

Koenig, W. D., S. S. Albano, and J. L. Dickinson. 1991. A comparison of methods to partition selection acting via components of fitness: do larger male bullfrogs have greater hatching success? J. Evol. Biol. 4:309-320.

Lanza, B., and S. Vanni. 1981. On the biogeography of plethodontid salamanders (Amphibia Caudata) with a description of a new genus. Monitore zool. ital. (n. s.) 15:117-121.

La Pointe, J. 1964. Induction of oviposition in lizards with the hormone, oxytocin. Copeia 1964:451-452.

Lappin, A. K., and E. J. Swinney. 1999. Sexual dimorphism as it relates to natural history of leopard lizards (Crotaphytidae: Gambelia). Copeia 1999:649-660.

Larsen, J. H., Jr., J. T. Beneski, Jr., and D. B. Wake. 1989. Hyolingual feeding systems of the Plethodontidae: comparative kinetics of prey capture by salamanders with free and attached tongues. J. Exp. Zool. 252:25-33.

Larson, A. 1980. Paedomorphosis in relation to rates of morphological and molecular evolution in the salamander Aneides flavipunctatus (Amphibia, Plethodontidae). Evolution 34:1-17.

Larson, A. 1981. A reevaluation of the relationship between genome size and genetic variation. Amer. Nat. 118:119-125.

Larson, A. 1983a. A molecular phylogenetic perspective on the origins of a lowland tropical salamander fauna. I. Phylogenetic inferences from protein comparisons. Herpetologica 39:85-99.

Larson, A. 1983b. A molecular phylogenetic perspective on the origins of a lowland tropical salamander fauna. II. Patterns of morphological evolution. Evolution 37:1141-1153.

Larson, A. 1984. Neontological inferences of evolutionary pattern and process in the salamander family Plethodontidae. Evol. Biol. 17:119-217.

Larson, A., E. M. Prager, and A. Wilson. 1984. Chromosomal evolution, speciation and morphological change in vertebrates: the role of social behaviour. Pp. 215-228 in Chromosomes Today, Vol. 8: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference Held in Lübeck, West Germany, 21-24 September 1983 (M. D. Bennett, A. Gropp, and U. Wolf, eds.). George Allen & Unwin, London.

Larson, A., D. B. Wake, L. R. Maxson, and R. Highton. 1981. A molecular phylogenetic perspective on the origins of morphological novelties in the salamanders of the tribe Plethodontini (Amphibia, Plethodontidae). Evolution 35:405-422.

Larson, A., D. B. Wake, and K. P. Yanev. 1984. Measuring gene flow among populations having high levels of genetic fragmentation. Genetics 106:293-308.

Larson, M. W. 1961. The critical thermal maximum of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis occidentalis Baird and Girard. Herpetologica 17:113-122.

Lawrence, J., and D. C. Wilhoft. 1958. Cryptic coloration in lava-dwelling horned lizards. Copeia 1958:43-44.

Lawson, R., D. B. Wake, and N. T. Beck. 1971. Tooth replacement in the red-backed salamander, Plethodoncinereus. J. Morphol. 134:259-269.

Lessa, E. P., and M. H. Wake. 1992. Morphometric analysis of the skull of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 106:1-15.

Leal, M., and J. A. Rodríguez-Robles. 1995. Antipredator responses of Anolis cristatellus (Sauria: Polychrotidae). Copeia 1995:155-161.

Leal, M., and J. A. Rodríguez-Robles. 1997a. Antipredator responses of the Puerto Rican giant anole, Anolis cuvieri (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Biotropica 29:372-375.

Leal, M., and J. A. Rodríguez-Robles. 1997b. Signalling displays during predator-prey interactions in a Puerto Rican anole, Anolis cristatellus. Anim. Behav. 54:1147-1154.

Leal, M., J. A. Rodríguez-Robles, and J. B. Losos. 1998. An experimental study of interspecific interactions between two Puerto Rican Anolis lizards. Oecologia (Berl.) 117:273-278.

Leonard, W. P., and R. C. Stebbins. 1999. Observations on the antipredator tactics of the sharp tailed snake (Contia tenuis). Northwest. Nat. 80:74-77.

Licht, P. and G. C. Gorman. 1970. Reproductive and fat cycles in Caribbean Anolis lizards. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 95:1-52.

Linsdale, J. M. 1932. Amphibians and reptiles from Lower California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 28:345-386.

Linsdale, J. M. 1933a. A specimen of Rana tarahumarae from New Mexico. Copeia 1933:222.

Linsdale, J. M. 1933b. Records of Ascaphus truei in Idaho. Copeia 1933:223.

Linsdale, J. M. 1933c. The leaf-nosed snake in Sonora, Mexico. Copeia 1933:222-223.

Linsdale, J. M. 1936. Variation in the dotted burrowing snake Chilomeniscus stramenius. Copeia 1936:232-234.

Linsdale, J. M. 1938. Environmental responses of vertebrates in the Great Basin. Amer. Midl. Nat. 19:1-206.

Linsdale, J. M. 1940. Amphibians and reptiles in Nevada. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 73:197-257.

Linsdale, J. M. and J. L. Gressitt. 1937. Soft-shelled turtles in the Colorado River Basin. Copeia 1937:222-225.

Lombard, R. E., and D. B. Wake. 1976. Tongue evolution in the lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. I. Introduction, theory and a general model of dynamics. J. Morphol. 148:265 286.

Lombard, R. E., and D. B. Wake. 1977. Tongue evolution in the lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. II. Function and evolutionary diversity. J. Morphol. 153:39-79.

Lombard, R. E., and D. B. Wake. 1986. Tongue evolution in the lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. IV. Phylogeny of plethodontid salamanders and the evolution of feeding dynamics. Syst. Zool. 35:532-551.

Losos, J. B. 1986. Island biogeography of day geckos (Phelsuma) in the Indian Ocean. Oecologia (Berl.) 68:338-343.

Losos, J. B. 1987. Postures of the military dragon (Ctenophorus isolepis) in relation to substrate temperature. Amphibia-Reptilia 8:419-423.

Losos, J. B. 1988. Thermoregulatory correlates of escape behavior by a desert lizard, Ctenophorus isolepis. J. Herpetol. 22:353-356.

Losos, J. B. 1990a. A phylogenetic analysis of character displacement in Caribbean Anolis lizards. Evolution 44:558-569.

Losos, J. B. 1990b. Concordant evolution of locomotor behaviour, display rate and morphology in Anolis lizards. Anim. Behav. 39:879-890.

Losos, J. B. 1990c. Ecomorphology, performance capability, and scaling of West Indian Anolis lizards: an evolutionary analysis. Ecol. Monogr. 60:369-388.

Losos, J. B. 1990d. The evolution of form and function: morphology and locomotor performance in West Indian Anolis lizards. Evolution 44:1189-1203.

Losos, J. B. 1990e. Thermal sensitivity of sprinting and clinging performance in the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). Asiatic Herpetol. Res. 3:54-59.

Losos, J. B. 1992. A critical comparison of the taxon-cycle and character displacement models for size evolution of Anolis lizards in the Lesser Antilles. Copeia 1992:279-288.

Losos, J. B., R. M. Andrews, O. J. Sexton, and A. L. Schuler. 1991. Behavior, ecology, and locomotor performance of the giant anole, Anolis frenatus. Carib. J. Sci. 27:173-179.

Losos, J. B., M. R. Gannon, W. J. Pfeiffer, and R. B. Waide. 1990. Notes on the ecology and behavior of Anolis cuvieri (Lacertilia: Iguanidae) in Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 26:65-66.

Losos, J. B., and H. W. Greene. 1988. Ecological and evolutionary implications of diet in monitor lizards. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 35:379-407.

Losos, J. B., T. J. Papenfuss, and J. R. Macey. 1989. Correlates of sprinting, jumping and parachuting performance in the butterfly lizard, Leiolepis belliani. J. Zool. (Lond.) 217:559-568.

Losos, J. B., and B. Sinervo. 1989. The effects of morphology and perch diameter on sprint performance of Anolis lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 145:23-30.

Lowe, C. H., Jr., and R. G. Zweifel. 1951. Sympatric populations of Batrachoseps attenuatus and Batrachoseps pacificus in southern California. Bull. So. California Acad. Sci. 50:128-135.

Lowe, C. H., Jr., and R. G. Zweifel. 1952. A new species of whiptailed lizard (genus Cnemidophorus) from New Mexico. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 9:229-247.

Lowenstein, J. M. and R. C. Stebbins. 1969. Iodine metabolism and thyroid activity in parietalectomized tropical lizards. Copeia 1969:664-669.

Luke, C. 1986. Convergent evolution of lizard toe fringes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 27:1-16.

Lutterschmidt, W. I., R. L. Nydam, and H. W. Greene. 1996. County record for the woodland vole, Microtus pinetorum (Rodentia: Muridae), LeFlore County, OK, with natural history notes on a predatory snake. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 76:93-94.

Lynch, J. F. 1973. The feeding ecology of some sympatric western plethodontid salamanders: implications for comparative interactions. HISS News-Journal 1:60-61.

Lynch, J. F. 1974. Aneides flavipunctatus. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 158.1-158.2.

Lynch, J. F. 1981. Patterns of ontogenetic and geographic variation in the black salamander, Aneides flavipunctatus (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 324:1-53.

Lynch, J. F. 1985. The feeding ecology of Aneides flavipunctatus and sympatric plethodontid salamanders in northwestern California. J. Herpetol. 19:328-352.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1974. Aneides lugubris. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 159.1-159.3.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1975. Systematics of the Chiropterotriton bromeliacia group (Amphibia: Caudata), with description of two new species from Guatemala. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 265:1-45.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1978. A new species of Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Caudata) from Baja Verapaz, Guatemala, with comments on relationships among Central American members of the genus. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 294:1-22.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1989. Two new species of Pseudoeurycea (Amphibia: Caudata) from Oaxaca, Mexico. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 411:11-22.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1998. Pseudoeurycea saltator. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 665.1-665.2.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1999a. Pseudoeurycea lonicauda. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 686.1-686.2.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1999b. Pseudoeurycea parva. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 687.1-687.2.

Lynch, J. F., and D. B. Wake. 1999c. Pseudoeurycea unguidentis. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 688.1-688.2.

Lynch, J. F., D. B. Wake, and S. Y. Yang. 1983. Genic and morphological differentiation in Mexican Pseudoeurycea (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with a description of a new species. Copeia 1983:884-894.

Lynch, J. F., S. Y. Yang, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1977. Studies of neotropical salamanders of the genus Pseudoeurycea, I: systematic status of Pseudoeurycea unguidentis. Herpetologica 33:46 52.

Macey, J. R., N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang,and T. J. Papenfuss. 1997. A taxonomic reevaluation of the gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus in China. Russian J. Herpetol. 4:8-16.

Macey, J. R., N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among Asian gekkonid lizards formerly of the genus Cyrtodactylus based on cladistic analyses of allozymic data: monophyly of Cyrtopodion and Mediodactylus. J. Herpetol. 34:258-265.

Macey, J. R., A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Z. Fang, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1997. Two novel gene orders and the role of light-strand replication in rearrangement of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:91-104.

Macey, J. R., A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1997a. Evolutionary shifts in three major structural features of the mitochondrial genome among iguanian lizards. J. Mol. Evol. 44:660-674.

Macey, J. R., A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1997b. Replication slippage may cause parallel evolution in the secondary structures of mitochondrial transfer RNAs. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:30-39.

Macey, J. R., and T. J. Papenfuss. 1991a. Amphibians. Pp. 277-290 in Natural History of the White-Inyo Range, Eastern California (C. A. Hall, Jr., ed.). University of California Press, Berkeley.

Macey, J. R., and T. J. Papenfuss. 1991b. Reptiles. Pp. 291-360 in Natural History of the White-Inyo Range, Eastern California (C. A. Hall, Jr., ed.). University of California Press, Berkeley.

Macey, J. R., T. J. Papenfuss, and E. Zhao. 1988. The snakes of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as an indication of a herpetofaunal corridor. Chinese Herpetol. Res. 2:4-5.

Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte, II, N. B. Ananjeva, A. Larson, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, S. M. Shammakov, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships among agamid lizards of the Laudakia caucasia species group: testing hypotheses of biogeographic fragmentation and an area cladogram for the Iranian Plateau. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 10:118-131.

Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte, II, H. G. Kami, N. B. Ananjeva, A. Larson, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2000. Testing hypotheses of vicariance in the agamid lizard Laudakia caucasia from mountain ranges of the northern Iranian Plateau. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 14:479-483.

Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte, II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Syst. Biol. 49:233-256.

Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte, II, A. Larson, Z. Fang, Y. Wang, B. S. Tuniyev, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of toads in the Bufo bufo species group from the eastern escarpment of the Tibetan Plateau: a case of vicariance and dispersal. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 9:80-87.

Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte, II, A. Larson, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1998. Tandem duplication via light-strand synthesis may provide a precursor for mitochondrial genomic rearrangement. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15:71-75.

Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte, II, A. Larson, B. S. Tuniyev, N. Orlov, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics, tRNA evolution, and historical biogeography in anguid lizards and related taxonomic families. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 12:250-272.

Macey, J. R., J. L. Strasburg, J. A. Brisson, V. T. Vredenburg, M. Jennings, and A. Larson. 2001. Molecular phylogenetics of western North American frogs of the Rana boylii species group. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 19:131-143.

Macey, J. R., Y. Wang, N. B. Ananjeva, A. Larson, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1999. Vicariant patterns of fragmentation among gekkonid lizards of the genus Teratoscincus produced by the Indian collision: a molecular phylogenetic perspective and an area cladogram for central Asia. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 12:320-332.

Macey, R. J. 1983. Life History Notes: Charina bottae bottae (Pacific rubber boa). Food. Herpetol. Rev. 14:19.

Macgregor, H., and L. Klosterman. 1979. Observations on the cytology of Bipes (Amphisbaenia) with special reference to its lampbrush chromosomes. Chromosoma (Berl.) 72:67-87.

Macgregor, H., and S. Sherwood. 1979. The nucleolus organizers of Plethodon and Aneides located by in situ nucleic acid hybridization with Xenopus 3H-ribosomal RNA. Chromosoma (Berl.) 72:271-280.

Mahoney, M. J. 2001. Molecular systematics of Plethodon and Aneides (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Plethodontini): phylogenetic analysis of an old and rapid radiation. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 18:174-188.

Maiorana, V. C. 1976a. Predation, submergent behavior, and tropical diversity. Evol. Theory 1:157-177.

Maiorana, V. C. 1976b. Size and environmental predictability for salamanders. Evolution 30:599-613.

Maiorana, V. C. 1977a. Observations of salamanders (Amphibia, Urodela, Plethodontidae) dying in the field. J. Herpetol. 11:1-5.

Maiorana, V. C. 1977b. Tail autotomy, functional conflicts and their resolution by a salamander. Nature (Lond.) 265:533-535.

Maiorana, V. C. 1978a. Behavior of an unobservable species: diet selection by a salamander. Copeia 1978:664-672.

Maiorana, V. C. 1978b. Difference in diet as an epiphenomenon: space regulates salamanders. Can. J. Zool. 56:1017-1025.

Marks, S. B. 2000. Skull development in two plethodontid salamanders (genus Desmognathus) with different life histories. Pp. 261-276 in The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders (R. C. Bruce, R. G. Jaeger, and L. D. Houck, eds.). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Marks, S. B., and A. Collazo. 1998. Direct development in Desmognathus aeneus (Caudata: Plethodontidae): a staging table. Copeia 1998:637-648.

Marlow, R. W., J. M. Brode, and D. B. Wake. 1979. A new salamander, genus Batrachoseps, from the Inyo Mountains of California, with a discussion of relationships in the genus. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 308:1-17.

Marlow, R. W., and J. L. Patton. 1981. Biochemical relationships of the Galápagos giant tortoises (Geochelone elephantopus) J. Zool. (Lond.) 195:413-422.

Marlow, R. W., and K. Tollestrup. 1982. Mining and exploitation of natural mineral deposits by the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii. Anim. Behav. 30:475-478.

Martins, M., J. P. Pombal, Jr., and C. F. B. Haddad. 1998. Escaleted aggressive behaviour and facultative parental care in the nest building gladiator frog, Hyla faber. Amphibia-Reptilia 19:65 73.

Maslin, T. P., Jr. 1939. Egg-laying of the slender salamander (Batrochoseps attenuatus). Copeia 1939:209-212.

Maslin, T. P., Jr. 1942. Evidence for the separation of the crotalid genera Trimeresurus and Bothrops, with a key to the genus Trimeresurus. Copeia 1942:18-24.

Maslin, T. P., Jr. 1950. Snakes of the Kiukiang-Lushan area, Kiangsi, China. Proc. California Acad. Sci. 26:419-466.

Matsui, M., and S. D. Busack. 1985. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of Rana gracilipes Gressitt, 1938 from Taiwan. Herpetologica 41:159-160.

Maxson, L. R., R. Highton, and D. B. Wake. 1979. Albumin evolution and its phylogenetic implications in the plethodontid salamander genera Plethodon and Ensatina. Copeia 1979:502-508.

Maxson, L. R., and D. B. Wake. 1981. Albumin evolution and its phylogenetic implications in the plethodontid salamander genera Pseudoeurycea and Chiropterotriton. Herpetologica 37:109-117.

McCranie, J. R., D. B. Wake, and L. D. Wilson. 1996. The taxonomic status of Bolitoglossa schmidti, with comments on the biology of the Mesoamerican salamander Bolitoglossa dofleini (Caudata: Plethodontidae). Carib. J. Sci. 32:395-398.

McGinnis, S. M., and C. W. Brown. 1966. Thermal behavior of the green iguana, Iguana iguana. Herpetologica 22:189-199.

Mead, J. I., T. R. Van Devender, K. L. Cole, and D. B. Wake. 1985. Late Pleistocene vertebrates from a packrat midden in the south-central Sierra Nevada, California. Curr. Res. Pleistocene 2:107-108.

Medina, D. R. 1959. Observations on the feeding behavior of a captive rosy boa, Lichanura roseofusca. Copeia 1959:336.

Metzger, S., and R. W. Marlow. 1986. The status of the Pinzon Island giant tortoise. Noticias de Galápagos 43:18-20.

Miller, A. H., and R. C. Stebbins. 1964. The Lives of Desert Animals in Joshua Tree National Monument. University of California Press, Berkeley. 452 pp.

Miller, C. M. 1943. An intergradient population connecting Anniella pulchra pulchra and Anniella pulchra nigra. Copeia 1943:2-6.

Miller, C. M. 1944. Ecologic relations and adaptations of the limbless lizards of the genus Anniella. Ecol. Monogr. 14:271-289.

Miller, L. 1955. Further observations on the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizi of California. Copeia 1955:113-118.

Miller, L., and A. H. Miller. 1936. The northward occurrence of Bufo californicus in California. Copeia 1936:176.

Moritz, C., C. J. Schneider, and D. B. Wake. 1992. Evolutionary relationships within the Ensatina eschscholtzii complex confirm the ring species interpretation. Syst. Biol. 41:273-291.

Mullen, D. A., and R. C. Stebbins. 1978. An addition to the amphibian fauna of California. Great Basin Nat. 38:429-437.

Murphy, R. W., F. C. McCollum, G. C. Gorman, and R. Thomas. 1984. Genetics of hybridizing populations of Puerto Rican Sphaerodactylus. J. Herpetol. 18:93-105.

Murphy, R. W., and T. J. Papenfuss. 1980. Biochemical variation of Phyllodactylus unctus and P. paucituberculatus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 8:97-100.

Murray, K. F. 1955. Herpetological collections from Baja California. Herpetologica 11:33-48.

Nevo, E., G. C. Gorman, M. Soulé, S. Y. Yang, R. Clover, and V. Jovanovic. 1972. Competitive exclusion between insular Lacerta species (Sauria, Lacertidae). Oecologia (Berl.) 10:183-190.

Nishikawa, K., and R. Wassersug. 1988. Morphology of the caudal spinal cord in Rana (Ranidae) and Xenopus (Pipidae) tadpoles. J. Comp. Neurol. 269:193-202.

Orlov, N. L., R. W. Murphy, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2000. List of snakes of Tam-Dao mountain ridge (Tonkin, Vietnam). Russian J. Herpetol. 7:69-80.

Panger, M. A., and H. W. Greene. 1998. Natural History Notes: Micrurus nigrocinctus (coral snake). Reproduction. Herpetol. Rev. 29:46.

Papenfuss, T. J. 1982. The ecology and systematics of the amphisbaenian genus Bipes. Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci. 136:1-42.

Papenfuss, T. J. 1986. Amphibian and reptile diversity along elevational transects in the White-Inyo Range. Pp. 129-136 in Natural History of the White-Inyo Range, Eastern California and Western Nevada and High Altitude Physiology: University of California, White Mountain Research Station Symposium (C. A. Hall, Jr. and D. J. Young, eds.). The Regents of the University of California.

Papenfuss, T. J., and D. B. Wake. 1987. Two new species of plethodontid salamanders (genus Nototriton) from Mexico. Acta Zool. Mex. (nueva serie) 21:1-16.

Papenfuss, T. J., D. B. Wake, and K. Adler. 1983. Salamanders of the genus Bolitoglossa from the Sierra Madre del Sur of southern Mexico. J. Herpetol. 17:295-307.

Parham, J. F., and T. A. Stidham. 1999. Late Cretaceous sea turtles from the Chico Formation of California. PaleoBios 19:1-7.

Parkinson, C. L., K. R. Zamudio, and H. W. Greene. 2000. Phylogeography of the pitviper clade Agkistrodon: historical ecology, species status, and conservation of cantils. Mol. Ecol. 9:411-420.

Parra-Olea, G. 1998. Pseudoeurycea nigromaculata. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 664.1-664.2.

Parra-Olea, G., and M. García-París. 1998a. Bolitoglossa hartwegi. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 641.1-641.2.

Parra-Olea, G., and M. García-París. 1998b. Natural History Notes: Pseudoeurycea galeanae (galeana false brook salamander). Habitat use. Herpetol. Rev. 29:163.

Parra-Olea, G., and M. García-París. 1999. Geographic Distribution: Thorius minydemus (minute pigmy salamander). Herpetol. Rev. 30:105.

Parra-Olea, G., M. García-París, and D. B. Wake. 1999. Status of some populations of Mexican salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 47:217-223.

Patton, J. L. 1984a. Biochemical genetics of the Galápagos giant tortoises. National Geographic Society Research Reports 17:701-709.

Patton, J. L. 1984b. Genetical processes in the Galápagos. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 21:97-111.

Pearson, A. K. 1985. Development of the pituitary in reptiles. Pp. 679-719 in Biology of the Reptilia, Vol. 14, Development A. (C. Gans, F. Billett, and P. F. A. Maderson, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Pearson, A. K., T. B. Hayes, and P. Licht. 1998. Immunochemical identification of thyrotropes and gonadotropes in the pars distalis and pars tuberalis of the toad (Bufo boreas) with reference to ontogenic changes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 111:83-94.

Pearson, A. K., and P. Licht. 1987. Seasonal changes in a lizard pituitary: immunocytochemistry and ultrastructural morphometry of lactotropes, corticotropes, and gonadotropes. J. Morphol. 193:225-239.

Pearson, A. K., and P. Licht. 1990. The double nucleus of the Sertoli cell in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. Tissue & Cell 22:221-229.

Pearson, A. K., and G. Z. Wurst. 1977. Embryonic differentiation of the pituitary in a snake (Thamnophis brachystoma). Anat. Embryol. 151:141-155.

Pearson, A. K., G. Z. Wurst, and J. E. Cadle. 1983. Ontogeny and immunocytochemical differentiation of the pituitary gland in a sea turtle, Caretta caretta. Anat. Embryol. 167:13-37.

Pearson, O. P. 1954. Habits of the lizard Liolaemus multiformis multiformis at high altitudes in southern Peru. Copeia 1954:111-116.

Pearson, O. P. 1977. The effect of substrate and of skin color on thermoregulation of a lizard. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 58A:353-358.

Pearson, O. P., and D. F. Bradford. 1976. Thermoregulation of lizards and toads at high altitutes in Peru. Copeia 1976:155-170.

Pechmann, J. H. K., and D. B. Wake. 1997. Declines and disappearances of amphibian populations. Essay 5B. Pp. 135-137 in Meffe, G. K., and C. R. Carroll. Principles of Conservation Biology, 2nd. ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts. 729 pp.

Petrakis, P. L., and C. W. Brown. 1970. A high order of heterogeneity in the serum albumin of Ensatina eschscholtzii, a Pacific coast salamander. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 32:475-487.

Pianka, E. R., and R. B. Huey. 1978. Comparative ecology, resource utilization and niche segregation among gekkonid lizards in the southern Kalahari. Copeia 1978:69l-701.

Poinar, G. O., Jr., and D. C. Cannatella. 1987. An upper Eocene frog from the Dominican Republic and its implication for Caribbean biogeography. Science (Washington, D.C.) 237:1215-1216.

Pombal, J. P., Jr., and C. F. B. Haddad. 1999. Frogs of the genus Paratelmatobius (Anura: Leptodactylidae) with descriptions of two new species. Copeia 1999:1014-1026.

Pregill, G. K., J. A. Gauthier, and H. W. Greene. 1986. The evolution of helodermatid squamates, with description of a new taxon and an overview of Varanoidea. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 21:167-202.

Presch, W. 1973. A review of the tegus, lizard genus Tupinambis (Sauria: Teiidae) from South America. Copeia 1973:740-746.

Pringle, C., I. Chacón, M. Grayum, H. Greene, G. Hartshorn, G. Schatz, G. Stiles, C. Gómez, and M. Rodríguez. 1984. Natural history observations and ecological evaluation of the La Selva Protection Zone, Costa Rica. Brenesia 22:189-206.

Quay, W. B., T. D. Kelley, R. C. Stebbins, and N. W. Cohen. 1970. Experimental studies on brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine and monoamine oxidase in a field population of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. Physiol. Zool. 43:90-97.

Quay, W. B., R. C. Stebbins, T. D. Kelley, and N. W. Cohen. 1971. Effects of environmental and physiological factors on pineal acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity in the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. Physiol. Zool. 44:241-248.

Ragghianti, M., and D. B. Wake. 1986. Genic variation and its evolutionary implications in the Italian newt, Triturus italicus. Herpetologica 42:206-214.

Rainey, T. 1953. Notes on the Syrian lizard Acanthodactylus tristrami orientalis. Copeia 1953:66-67.

Rainey, W. E. 1981. Guide to sea turtle visceral anatomy. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-82. 82 pp.

Rand, A. S., and H. W. Greene. 1982. Latitude and climate in the phenology of reproduction in the green iguana, Iguana iguana. Pp. 142-149 in Iguanas of the World: Their Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (G. M. Burghardt and A. S. Rand, eds.). Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey.

Reynolds, R. P., and R. W. Marlow. 1983. Lonesome George, the Pinta Island tortoise: a case of limited alternatives. Noticias de Galápagos 37:14-17.

Riemer, W. J. 1954. A new subspecies of the snake Masticophis lateralis from California. Copeia 1954:45-48.

Riemer, W. J. 1955. Comments on the distribution of certain Mexican toads. Herpetologica 11:17-23.

Riemer, W. J. 1958. Variation and systematic relationships within the salamander genus Taricha. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 56:301-390.

Roberts, W. E. 1994. Explosive breeding aggregations and parachuting in a neotropical frog, Agalychnis saltator (Hylidae). J. Herpetol. 28:193-199.

Roberts, W. E. 1996. The responsible frog: parenting strategies of tropical frogs. Pacific Discovery 49:8-14.

Roberts, W. E. 1997. Behavioral observations of Polychrus gutturosus, a sister taxon of anoles. Herpetol. Rev. 28:184-185.

Rodgers, T. L. 1939. A lizard live-trap. Copeia 1939:51.

Rodgers, T. L., and H. S. Fitch. 1947. Variation in the skinks (Reptilia: Lacertilia) of the skiltonianus group. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 48:169-219.

Rodgers, T. L., and W. L. Jellison. 1942. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from western Montana. Copeia 1942:10-13.

Rodgers, T. L., and V. H. Memmler. 1943. Growth in the western blue-tailed skink. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 10:61-68.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A. 1994. Are the Duvernoy's gland secretions of colubrid snakes venoms? J. Herpetol. 28:388-390.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A. 1998. Alternative perspectives on the diet of gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer, Colubridae): literature records versus stomach contents of wild and museum specimens. Copeia 1998:463-466.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., C. J. Bell, and H. W. Greene. 1999a. Food habits of the glossy snake, Arizona elegans, with comparisons to the diet of sympatric long-nosed snakes, Rhinocheilus lecontei. J. Herpetol. 33:87-92.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., C. J. Bell, and H. W. Greene. 1999b. Gape size and evolution of diet in snakes: feeding ecology of erycine boas. J. Zool. (Lond.) 248:49-58.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., and J. M. De Jesús-Escobar. 1999. Molecular systematics of New World lampropeltinine snakes (Colubridae): implications for biogeography and evolution of food habits. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 68:355-385.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., D. F. DeNardo, and R. E. Staub. 1999. Phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata (Colubridae). Mol. Ecol. 8:1923-1934.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., and J. M. De Jesús-Escobar. 2000. Molecular systematics of New World gopher, bull, and pinesnakes (Pituophis: Colubridae), a transcontinental species complex. Mol. Phyl. Evol.14:35-50.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., D. A. Good, and D. B. Wake. In press. Brief history of herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a list of type specimens of recent amphibians and non-avian reptiles. Univ. California Publ. Zool.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., and H. W. Greene. 1996. Ecological patterns in Greater Antillean macrostomatan snake assemblages, with comments on body-size evolution in Epicrates (Boidae). Pp. 339-357 in Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology, Vol. 12 (R. Powell and R. W. Henderson, eds.). Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., and H. W. Greene. 1999. Food habits of the long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei), a 'specialist' predator? J. Zool. (Lond.) 248:489-499.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., D. G. Mulcahy, and H. W. Greene. 1999. Feeding ecology of the desert nightsnake, Hypsiglena torquata (Colubridae). Copeia 1999:93-100.

Rodríguez-Robles, J. A., G. R. Stewart, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA-based phylogeography of North American rubber boas, Charina bottae (Serpentes: Boidae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 18:227-237.

Rosenthal, G. M. 1957. The role of moisture and temperature in the local distribution of the plethodontid salamander, Aneides lugubris. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 54:371-420.

Roth, G., J. Blanke, and D. B. Wake. 1994. Cell size predicts morphological complexity in the brains of frogs and salamanders. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:4796-4800.

Roth, G., K. Nishikawa, U. Dicke, and D. B. Wake. 1988a. Funktionsmorphologie und neuronale Kontrolle des Beutefangs bei Salamandern und Fröschen: Gemeinsamkeiten und Alternativen. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 81:59-75. [In German.]

Roth, G., K. Nishikawa, U. Dicke, and D. B. Wake. 1988b. Topography and cytoarchitecture of the motor nuclei in the brainstem of salamanders. J. Comp. Neurol. 278:181-194.

Roth, G., K. C. Nishikawa, C. Naujoks-Manteuffel, A. Schmidt, and D. B. Wake. 1993. Paedomorphosis and simplification in the nervous system of salamanders. Brain Behav. Evol. 42:137-170.

Roth, G., K. C. Nishikawa, and D. B. Wake. 1997. Genome size, secondary simplification, and the evolution of the brain in salamanders. Brain Behav. Evol. 50:50-59.

Roth, G., K. C. Nishikawa, D. B. Wake, U. Dicke, and T. Matsushima. 1990. Mechanics and neuromorphology of feeding in amphibians. Netherlands J. Zool. 40:115-135.

Roth, G., and D. B. Wake. 1983. Lungenlose salamander: biologen studieren eine merkwürdige Tiergruppe. Bild Wiss. 2-1983:124-128. [In German.]

Roth, G., and D. B. Wake. 1985a. The structure of the brainstem and cervical spinal cord in lungless salamanders (family Plethodontidae) and its relation to feeding. J. Comp. Neurol. 241:99-110.

Roth, G., and D. B. Wake. 1985b. Trends in the functional morphology and sensorimotor control of feeding behavior in salamanders: an example of the role of internal dynamics in evolution. Acta Biotheoret. 34:175-192.

Roth, G., and D. B. Wake. 1989. Conservatism and innovation in the evolution of feeding in vertebrates. Pp. 7-21 in Complex Organismal Functions: Integration and Evolution in Vertebrates (D. B. Wake and G. Roth, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.

Roth, G., and D. B. Wake. 2001. Evolution and devolution: the case of bolitoglossine salamanders. Pp. 237-263 in Brain Evolution and Cognition (G. Roth and M. F. Wullimann, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Roth, G., D. B. Wake, M. H. Wake, and G. Rettig. 1984. Distribution of accessory and hypoglossal nerves in the hindbrain and spinal cord of lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. Neurosci. Lett. 44:53-57.

Russell, A. P., and A. M. Bauer. 1986. Le gecko geant Hoplodactylus delcourti et ses relations avec le gigantisme et l'endemisme insulaire chez les Gekkonidae. Mesogee 46:25-28. [In French.]

Russell, A. P., and A. M. Bauer. 1988. An early description of a member of the genus Phelsuma (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), with comments on names erroneously applied to Uroplatusfimbriatus. Amphibia-Reptilia 9:107-116.

Russell, R. W., and J. D. Anderson. 1956. A disjunct population of the long-nosed salamander from the coast of California. Herpetologica 12:137-140. [Title should have read "long-toed."]

Russell, W. C. 1930. Weasel badly injured by king snake. J. Mammal. 11:504-505.

Ruth, S. B. 1974a. A kingsnake from Isla Tortuga in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Herpetologica 30:97-98.

Ruth, S. B. 1974b. The current status of the Santa Cruz long-toed salamander--an endangered animal. Herpetol. Rev. 5:27-29.

Ryan, M. J. 1985. Energetic efficiency of vocalization by the frog Physalaemus pustulosus. J. Exp. Biol. 116:47-52.

Ryan, M. J. 1986. Neuroanatomy influences speciation rates among anurans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:1379-1382.

Sage, R. D., E. M. Prager, and D. B. Wake. 1982. A Cretaceous divergence time between pelobatid frogs (Pelobates and Scaphiopus): immunological studies of serum albumin. J. Zool. (Lond.) 198:481-494.

Sage, R. D., and R. K. Selander. 1979. Hybridization between species of the Rana pipiens complex in central Texas. Evolution 33:1069-1088.

Salt, G. W., and R. C. Stebbins. 1948. Northward occurrence of the canyon tree-toad in California. Copeia 1948:131.

Savage, J. M., and M. H. Wake. 2001. Reevaluation of the status of taxa of Central American caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), with comments on their origin and evolution. Copeia 2001:52-64.

Schmidt, A., D. B. Wake, and M. H. Wake. 1996. Motor nuclei of nerves innervating the tongue and hypoglossal musculature in a caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), as revealed by HRP transport. J. Comp. Neurol. 370:342-349.

Schmidt, A., and M. H. Wake. 1990. Olfactory and vomeronasal systems of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Morphol. 205:255-268.

Schmidt, A., and M. H. Wake. 1997. Cellular migration and morphological complexity in the caecilian brain. J. Morphol. 231:11 27.

Schmidt, A., and M. H. Wake. 1998. Development of the tectum in gymnophiones, with comparison to other amphibians. J. Morphol. 236:233-246.

Schneider, C. J. 1996. Distinguishing between primary and secondary intergradation among morphologically differentiated populations of Anolis marmoratus. Mol. Ecol. 5:239-249.

Schulte, J. A., II, J. R. Macey, A. Larson, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1998. Molecular tests of phylogenetic taxonomies: a general procedure and example using four subfamilies of the lizard family Iguanidae. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 10:367-376.

Schwenk, K. 1985. Occurrence, distribution and functional significance of taste buds in lizards. Copeia 1985:91-101.

Schwenk, K. 1986. Morphology of the tongue in the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus (Reptilia: Lepidosauria), with comments on function and phylogeny. J. Morphol. 188:129-156.

Schwenk, K., and D. A. Bell. 1988. A cryptic intermediate in the evolution of chameleon tongue projection. Experientia 44:697-700.

Schwenk, K., and H. W. Greene. 1987. Water collection and drinking in Phrynocephalus helioscopus: a possible condensation mechanism. J. Herpetol. 21:134-139.

Schwenk, K., and H. W. Greene. 1995. No electrostatic sense in snakes. Nature (Lond.) 373:26.

Schwenk, K., S. K. Sessions, and D. M. Peccinini Seale. 1982. Karyotypes of the basiliscine lizards Corytophanescristatus and Corytophanes hernandesii, with comments on the relationship between chromosomal and morphological evolution in lizards. Herpetologica 38:493-501.

Schwenk, K., and D. B. Wake. 1993. Prey processing in Leurognathus marmoratus and the evolution of form and function in desmognathine salamanders (Plethodontidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 49:141-162.

Seeliger, L. M. 1945a. A leucistic specimen of the black salamander. Copeia 1945:122.

Seeliger, L. M. 1945b. Variation in the Pacific mud turtle. Copeia 1945:150-159.

Seib, R. L. 1980a. Baja California: a peninsula for rodents but not for reptiles. Amer. Nat. 115:613-620.

Seib, R. L. 1980b. Human envenomation from the bite of an aglyphous false coral snake, Pliocercus elapoides (Serpentes: Colubridae). Toxicon 18:399-401.

Seib, R. L. 1984. Prey use in three syntopic neotropical racers. J. Herpetol. 18:412-420.

Seib, R. L. 1985. Euryphagy in a tropical snake, Coniophanes fissidens. Biotropica 17:57-64.

Sessions, S. K. 1980. Evidence for a highly differentiated sex chromosome heteromorphism in the salamander Necturus maculosus (Rafinesque). Chromosoma (Berl.) 77:157-168.

Sessions, S. K. 1982. Cytogenetics of diploid and triploid salamanders of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex. Chromosoma (Berl.) 84:599-621.

Sessions, S. K., and J. Kezer. 1987. Cytogenetic evolution in the plethodontid salamander genus Aneides. Chromosoma (Berl.) 95:17-30.

Sessions, S. K., and A. Larson. 1987. Developmental correlates of genome size in plethodontid salamanders and their implications for genome evolution. Evolution 41:1239-1251.

Sessions, S. K., P. E. León, and J. Kezer. 1982. Cytogenetics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus (Blanchard): the evolutionary significance of cryptobranchoid karyotypes. Chromosoma (Berl.) 86:341-357.

Sessions, S. K., and J. E. Wiley. 1985. Chromosome evolution in salamanders of the genus Necturus. Brimleyana 10:37-52.

Shaffer, H. B. 1978. Relative predation pressure on salamanders (Caudata: Plethodontidae) along an altitudinal transect in Guatemala. Copeia 1978:268-272.

Shubin, N., and D. Wake. 1996. Phylogeny, variation, and morphological integration. Amer. Zool. 36:51-60.

Shubin, N., D. B. Wake, and A. J. Crawford. 1995. Morphological variation in the limbs of Taricha granulosa (Caudata: Salamandridae): evolutionary and phylogenetic implications. Evolution 49:874-884.

Sinervo, B., and J. B. Losos. 1991. Walking the tight rope: arboreal sprint performance among Sceloporus occidentalis lizard populations. Ecology 72:1225-1233.

Smith, H. M., and D. B. Wake. 1993a. Hemidactyliini Hallowell, 1856 (Amphibia, Caudata): proposed conservation. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 50:129-132.

Smith, H. M., and D. B. Wake. 1993b. Hydromantes Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Caudata): proposed designation of Salamandra genei Temminck & Schlegel, 1838 as the type species. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 50:219-223.

Smith, H. M., and D. B. Wake. 1994. Comment on the proposed conservation of Hemidactyliini Hallowell, 1856 (Amphibia, Caudata). Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51:341-342.

Smith, H. M., D. B. Wake, and M. R. Jennings. 1995. Comment on the proposed conservation of Hydromantes Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Caudata) by the designation of Salamandra genei Temminck & Schlegel, 1838 as the type species. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 52:267-269.

Smith, H. M., D. B. Wake, and M. R. Jennings. 1996. Comments on the proposed conservation of Hydromantes Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Caudata) by the designation of Salamandra genei Temminck & Schlegel, 1838 as the type species. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 53:48.

Soulé, M., and S. Y. Yang. 1973. Genetic variation in side-blotched lizards on islands in the Gulf of California. Evolution 27:593-600.

Spoecker, P. D. 1967a. Ectoparasites of a Mojave Desert population of the lizard Uta stansburianastejnegeri Schmidt. Amer. Midl. Nat. 77:539-542.

Spoecker, P. D. 1967b. Movements and seasonal activity cycles of the lizard Uta stansburianastejnegeri. Amer. Midl. Nat. 77:484-494.

Stamps, J. A. 1973. Displays and social organization in female Anolis aeneus. Copeia 1973:264-272.

Stamps, J. A., and G. W. Barlow. 1973. Variation and stereotypy in the displays of Anolis aeneus (Sauria: Iguanidae). Behaviour 47:67-94.

Staub, N. L. 1993. Intraspecific agonistic behavior of the salamander Aneides flavipunctatus (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) with comparisons to other plethodontid species. Herpetologica 49:271-282.

Staub, N. L., C. W. Brown, and D. B. Wake. 1995. Patterns of growth and movements in a population of Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis (Caudata: Plethodontidae) in the Sierra Nevada, California. J. Herpetol. 29:593-599.

Stebbins, R. C. 1947. Tail and foot action in the locomotion of Hydromantes platycephalus. Copeia 1947:1-5.

Stebbins, R. C. 1948a. Additional observations on home ranges and longevity in the lizard Sceloporus gracious. Copeia 1948:20-22.

Stebbins, R. C. 1948b. Nasal structure in lizards with reference to olfaction and conditioning of the inspired air. Amer. J. Anat. 83:183-221.

Stebbins, R. C. 1948c. New distributional records for Xantusia vigilis with observations on its habitat. Amer. Midl. Nat. 39:96-101.

Stebbins, R. C. 1949a. Courtship of the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. Copeia 1949:274-281.

Stebbins, R. C. 1949b. Observations on laying, development, and hatching of the eggs of Batrachoseps wrighti. Copeia 1949:161-168.

Stebbins, R. C. 1949c. Speciation in salamanders of the plethodontid genus Ensatina. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 48:377-525.

Stebbins, R. C. 1951. Amphibians of Western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley. 539 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1954a. Amphibians and Reptiles of Western North America. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. 536 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1954b. Natural history of the salamanders of the plethodontid genus Ensatina. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 54:47-124.

Stebbins, R. C. 1955. Southern occurrence of the Olympic salamander Rhyacotriton olympicus. Herpetologica 11:238-239.

Stebbins, R. C. 1957. Intraspecific sympatry in the lungless salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. Evolution 11:265-270.

Stebbins, R. C. 1958a. A new alligator lizard from the Panamint Mountains, Inyo County, California. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1883:1-27.

Stebbins, R. C. 1958b. An experimental study of the "third eye" of the tuatara. Copeia 1958:183-190.

Stebbins, R. C. 1959. Reptiles and Amphibians of the San Francisco Bay Region. University of California Press, Berkeley. 72 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1960. Effects of pinealectomy in the western fence lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. Copeia 1960:276-283.

Stebbins, R. C. 1961. Body temperature studies in South African lizards. Koedoe [Journal for Scientific Research in the National Parks of the Republic of South Africa] 4:54-67.

Stebbins, R. C. 1963. Activity changes in the striped plateau lizard with evidence on influence of the parietal eye. Copeia 1963:681-691.

Stebbins, R. C. 1966. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 279 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1970. The effect of parietalectomy on testicular activity and exposure to light in the desert night lizard (Xantusia vigilis). Copeia 1970:261-270.

Stebbins, R. C. 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 152 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd. ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 336 pp.

Stebbins, R. C. 1988. Reptiles: adaptations to desert ecosystems. Environment Southwest 522:13-16.

Stebbins, R. C., and R. E. Barwick. 1968. Radiotelemetric study of thermoregulation in a lace monitor. Copeia 1968:541-547.

Stebbins, R. C., and N. W. Cohen. 1973. The effect of parietalectomy on the thyroid and gonads in free-living western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Copeia 1973:662-668.

Stebbins, R. C., and N. W. Cohen. 1995. A Natural History of Amphibians. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 316 pp.

Stebbins, R. C., and R. M. Eakin. 1958. The role of the "third eye" in reptilian behavior. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1870:1-40.

Stebbins, R. C., and J. R. Hendrickson. 1959. Field studies of amphibians in Colombia, South America. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 56:497-540.

Stebbins, R. C., D. C. Ipsen, and G. Gillfillan. 1966. Animal Coloration, An Introduction to Natural Selection. Part I. The Principles of Concealing Coloration. Elementary School Science Project, University of California, Berkeley. 175 pp.

Stebbins, R. C., and C. H. Lowe, Jr. 1949. The systematic status of Plethopsis with a discussion of speciation in the genus Batrachoseps. Copeia 1949:116-129.

Stebbins, R. C., and C. H. Lowe, Jr. 1951. Subspecific differentiation in the Olympic salamander Rhyacotriton olympicus. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 50:465-482.

Stebbins, R. C., J. M. Lowenstein, and N. W. Cohen. 1967. A field study of the lava lizard (Tropidurus albemarlensis) in the Galápagos Islands. Ecology 48:839-851.

Stebbins, R. C., and H. C. Reynolds. 1947. Southern extension of the range of the Del Norte salamander in California. Herpetologica 4:41-42.

Stebbins, R. C., and W. J. Riemer. 1950. A new species of plethodontid salamander from the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Copeia 1950:73-80.

Stebbins, R. C., and H. B. Robinson. 1946. Further analysis of a population of the lizard Sceloporus graciosus gracilis. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 48:149-167.

Stebbins, R. C., W. Steyn, and C. Peers. 1960. Results of stirnorganectomy in tadpoles of the African ranid frog, Pyxicephalus delalandi. Herpetologica 16:261-275.

Stebbins, R. C., and W. Tong. 1973. Epithelial cell height as a measure of thyroid activity in free-living western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Copeia 1973:668-672.

Stebbins, R. C., and D. C. Wilhoft. 1966. Influence of the parietal eye on activity in lizards. Pp. 258-268 in The Galápagos: Proceedings of the Symposia of the Galápagos International Scientific Project (R. I. Bowman, ed.). University of California Press, Berkeley.

Stewart, J. R. 1979. The balance between number and size of young in the live bearing lizard Gerrhonotuscoeruleus. Herpetologica 35:342-350.

Storer, T. I. 1915. Additional records of the tiger salamander in California. Copeia 1915:56.

Storer, T. I. 1916. An instance of albinism in the western gopher snake. Copeia 1916:74-76.

Storer, T. I. 1920. Lizard eaten by cactus wren. Condor 22:159.

Storer, T. I. 1921. Coral king snake at Keddie, Calif. Copeia 97:44.

Storer, T. I. 1922. The eastern bullfrog in California. California Fish and Game 8:219-224.

Storer, T. I. 1923. Coastal range of yellow-legged frog in California. Copeia 1923:8.

Storer, T. I. 1925. A synopsis of the Amphibia of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 27:1-342.

Stromberg, M. R. 1997. Natural History Notes: Taricha torosa (California newt). Response to fire. Herpetol. Rev. 28:82-83.

Swarth, H. S. 1921. The type locality of Crotalus willardi Meek. Copeia 1923:83.

Sweet, S. S. 1976. Eurycea: spring and cave salamanders of Edwards Plateau. Texas Caver April:60-62.

Sweet, S. S. 1977a. Eurycea tridentifera. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 199.9-199.2.

Sweet, S. S. 1977b. Natural metamorphosis in Eurycea neotenes, and the generic allocation of the Texas Eurycea (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica 33:364-375.

Sweet, S. S. 1978. On the status of Eurycea pterophila (Amphibia: Plethodontidae). Herpetologica 34:101-108.

Tan, A.-M. 1994. Chromosomal variation in the northwestern American newts of the genus Taricha (Caudata: Salamandridae). Chromosome Res. 2:281-292.

Tan, A.-M., and C. Orrego. 1992. DNA stabilization and amplification from museum collections of extracts originally intended for allozyme analysis. Mol. Ecol. 1:195-197.

Tan, A.-M., and D. B. Wake. 1995. MtDNA phylogeography of the California newt, Taricha torosa (Caudata, Salamandridae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 4:383-394.

Tevis, L., Jr. 1943. Field notes on a red rattlesnake in Lower California. Copeia 1943:242-245.

Tevis, L., Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from Lower California. Copeia 1944:6-18.

Theodoratus, D. H., and D. Chiszar. 2000. Habitat selection and prey odor in the foraging behavior of western rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Behaviour 137:119-135.

Thexton, A. J., D. B. Wake, and M. H. Wake. 1977. Tongue function in the salamander Bolitoglossa occidentalis. Arch. Oral Biol. 22:361-366.

Tihen, J. A., and D. B. Wake. 1981. Vertebrae of plethodontid salamanders from the Lower Miocene of Montana. J. Herpetol. 15:35-40.

Tollestrup, K. 1982. Growth and reproduction in two closely related species of leopard lizards, Gambeliasilus and Gambelia wislizenii. Amer. Midl. Nat. 108:1-20.

Tollestrup, K. 1983. The social behavior of two species of closely related leopard lizards, Gambeliasilus and Gambelia wislizenii. Z. Tierpsychol. 62:307-320.

Trenham, P. C., H. B. Shaffer, W. D. Koenig, and M. R. Stromberg. 2000. Life history and demographic variation in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense). Copeia 2000:365-377.

Troyer, K. 1983. The biology of iguanine lizards: present status and future directions. Herpetologica 39:317-328.

Turner, F. B. 1952. The mouth parts of tadpoles of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus hammondi. Copeia 1952:172-175.

Turner, F. B. 1958a. Life-history of the western spotted frog in Yellowstone National Park. Herpetologica 14:96-100.

Turner, F. B. 1958b. Some parasites of the western spotted frog, Rana p. pretiosa, in Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. J. Parasitol. 44:182.

Turner, F. B. 1959a. An analysis of the feeding habits of Rana p. pretiosa in Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Amer. Midl. Nat. 61:403-413.

Turner, F. B. 1959b. Pigmentation of the western spotted frog, Rana p. pretiosa, in Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Amer. Midl. Nat. 61:162-176.

Turner, F. B. 1959c. Variation in skeletal proportions of Rana p. pretiosa in Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Copeia 1959:63-68.

Turner, F. B. 1960. Population structure and dynamics of the western spotted frog, Rana p. pretiosa Baird & Girard, in Yellowstone Park, Wyoming. Ecol. Monogr. 30:251:278.

Vredenburg, V. 2000. Natural History Notes: Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog). Egg predation. Herpetol. Rev. 31:170-171.

Vredenburg, V. T., T. Tunstall, H. Nguyen, J. Romansic, and S. Schoville. 2001. Natural History Notes: Hydromantes platycephalus (Mt. Lyell salamander). Behavior. Herpetol. Rev. 32, in press.

Wake, D. B. 1970a. Aspects of vertebral evolution in the modern Amphibia. Forma et Functio 3:33-60.

Wake, D. B. 1970b. The abundance and diversity of tropical salamanders. Amer. Nat. 104:211-213.

Wake, D. B. 1972. Emmett Reid Dunn and the development of scientific studies of salamander biology. Pp. iii-x in Dunn, E. R. The Salamanders of the Family Plethodontidae. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 446 pp.

Wake, D. B. 1974a. Aneides. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 157.l-157.2.

Wake, D. B. 1974b. Urodela. Pp. 1085-1088 in Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th. ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Wake, D. B. 1976. On the correct scientific names of urodeles. Differentiation 6:195.

Wake, D. B. 1978. [Obituary.] Tracy I. Storer and Charles L. Camp. Copeia 1978:196-197.

Wake, D. B. 1980a. Evidence of heterochronic evolution: a nasal bone in the Olympic salamander, Rhyacotriton olympicus. J. Herpetol. 14:292-295.

Wake, D. B. 1980b. Paedomorphosis. J. Herpetol. 14:80-81.

Wake, D. B. 1981. The application of allozyme evidence to problems in the evolution of morphology. Pp. 257-270 in Evolution Today, Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology (G. G. E. Scudder and J. L. Reveal, eds.). Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Wake, D. B. 1982. Functional and developmental constraints and opportunities in the evolution of feeding systems in urodeles. Pp. 51-66 in Environmental Adaptation and Evolution: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach (D. Mossakowski and G. Roth, eds.). Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany.

Wake, D. B. 1987. Adaptive radiation of salamanders in Middle American cloud forests. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74:242-264.

Wake, D. B. 1989. Phylogenetic implications of ontogenetic data. Pp. 369-378 in Ontogenèse et Évolution (B. David, J.-L. Dommergues, J. Chaline, and B. Laurin, eds.). Geobios, Mémoire Spécial. 12.

Wake, D. B. 1991a. Declining amphibian populations. Science (Washington, D.C.) 253:860.

Wake, D. B. 1991b. Homoplasy: the result of natural selection, or evidence of design limitations? Amer. Nat. 138:543-567.

Wake, D. B. 1992. An integrated approach to evolutionary studies of salamanders. Pp. 163-177 in Herpetology: Current Research on the Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Proceedings of the First World Congress of Herpetology (K. Adler, ed.). Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.

Wake, D. B. 1993a. Brainstem organization and branchiomeric nerves. Acta Anat. 148:124-131.

Wake, D. B. 1993b. Phylogenetic and taxonomic issues relating to salamanders of the family Plethodontidae. Herpetologica 49:229-237.

Wake, D. B. 1995. Major amphibian groups. Pp. 424-435 in The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. 13, 15th ed Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Chicago.

Wake, D. B. 1996a. A new species of Batrachoseps (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) from the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 463:1-12.

Wake, D. B. 1996b. Evolutionary developmental biology--prospects for an evolutionary synthesis at the developmental level. Pp. 97-107 in New Perspectives on the History of Life: Essays on Systematic Biology as Historical Narrative (M. Ghiselin and G. Pinna, eds.). Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, Number 20. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.

Wake, D. B. 1997. Incipient species formation in salamanders of the Ensatina complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:7761-7767.

Wake, D. B. 1998a. Action on amphibians. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13:379-380.

Wake, D. B. 1998b. Obituary. Pere Alberch (1954-98). Synthesizer of development and evolution. Nature (Lond.) 393:632.

Wake, D. B. 1998c. On the taxonomic status of Nototriton sanctibarbarus McCranie and Wilson (Amphibia: Caudata). Southwest. Nat. 43:88-91.

Wake, D. B. 1999. Homoplasy, homology and the problem of 'sameness' in biology. Pp. 24-46 in Homology (G. R. Bock and G. Cardew, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.

Wake, D. B., and A. R. Blaustein. 1990. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon? Trends Ecol. Evol. 7:203-204.

Wake, D. B., and A. H. Brame, Jr., and W. E. Duellman. 1973. New species of salamanders, genus Bolitoglossa, from Panama. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 248:1-19.

Wake, D. B., and A. H. Brame, Jr., and C. W. Myers. 1970. Bolitoglossa taylori, a new salamander from cloud forest of the Serranía de Pirre, eastern Panama. Amer Mus. Novitates 2430:1-18.

Wake, D. B., A. H. Brame, Jr. II., and R. Thomas. 1982. A remarkable new species of salamander allied to Bolitoglossa altamazonica (Plethodontidae) from southern Peru. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ. 58:1-21.

Wake, D. B., and J. A. Campbell. 2000. A new species of diminutive salamander (Amphibia: Caudata: Plethodontidae: Nototriton) from the Montañas del Mico of Guatemala Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 113:815-819.

Wake, D. B., and J. A. Campbell. 2001. An aquatic plethodontid salamander from Oaxaca, Mexico. Herpetologica 57, in press.

Wake, D. B., and J. Castanet. 1995. A skeletochronological study of growth and age in relation to adult size in Batrachoseps attenuatus. J. Herpetol. 29:60-65.

Wake, D. B., and S. M. Deban. 2000. Terrestrial feeding in salamanders. Pp. 95-116 in Feeding: Form, Function, Phylogeny (K. Schwenk, ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Wake, D. B., and P. Elias. 1983. New genera and a new species of Central American salamanders, with a review of the tropical genera (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae). Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 345:1-19.

Wake, D. B., and J. Hanken. 1977. Herpetology at the University of California-Berkeley. Herpetol. Rev. 8:74-75.

Wake, D. B., and J. Hanken. 1996. Direct development in the lungless salamanders: what are the consequences for developmental biology, evolution and phylogenesis? Int. J. Dev. Biol. 40:859-869

Wake, D. B. and E. L. Jockusch. 2000. Detecting species borders using diverse data sets. Examples from plethodontid salamanders in California. Pp. 95-119 in The Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders (R. C. Bruce, R. G. Jaeger, and L. D. Houck, eds.). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Wake, D. B., E. L. Jockusch, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1998. Does Batrachoseps occur in Alaska? Herpetol. Rev. 29:12-14.

Wake, D. B., and J. D. Johnson. 1989. A new genus and species of plethodontid salamander from Chiapas, Mexico. Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 411:1-10.

Wake, D. B., and A. Larson. 1987. Multidimensional analysis of an evolving lineage. Science (Washington, D.C.) 238:42-48.

Wake, D. B., and R. Lawson. 1973. Developmental and adult morphology of the vertebral column in the plethodontid salamander Eurycea bislineata, with comments on vertebral evolution in the Amphibia. J. Morphol. 139:251-298.

Wake, D. B., and R. E. Lombard. 1971. Functional aspects of tongue projection mechanisms in plethodontid salamanders. Herpetol. Rev. 3:108.

Wake, D. B., and R. E. Lombard. 1973. Feeding mechanisms and the evolution of plethodontid salamanders. HISS News-Journal 1:64-65.

Wake, D. B., and R. E. Lombard. 1988. The taxonomic status of Bolitoglossa resplendens (Amphibia: Caudata). Herpetologica 44:105-108.

Wake, D. B., and J. F. Lynch. 1976. The distribution, ecology, and evolutionary history of plethodontid salamanders in tropical America. Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County 25:1-65.

Wake, D. B., and S. B. Marks. 1993. Development and evolution of plethodontid salamanders: a review of prior studies and a prospectus for future research. Herpetologica 49:194-203.

Wake, D. B., L. R. Maxson, and G. Z. Wurst. 1978. Genetic differentiation, albumin evolution, and their biogeographic implications in plethodontid salamanders of California and southern Europe. Evolution 32:529-539.

Wake, D. B., K. C. Nishikawa, U. Dicke, and G. Roth. 1988. Organization of the motor nuclei in the cervical spinal cord of salamanders. J. Comp. Neurol. 278:195-208.

Wake, D. B., T. J. Papenfuss, and J. F. Lynch. 1992. Distribution of salamanders along elevational transects in Mexico and Guatemala. Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot., Suppl. Publ. 1:303-319.

Wake, D. B., G. Roth, and M. H. Wake. 1982. Evolutionary relationships among Central American salamanders of the Bolitoglossa franklini group, with a description of a new species from Guatemala. Herpetologica 38:257-272.

Wake, D. B., G. Roth, and M. H. Wake. 1983a. On the problem of stasis in organismal evolution. J. Theor. Biol. 101:211-224.

Wake, D. B., G. Roth, and M. H. Wake. 1983b. Tongue evolution in lungless salamanders, family Plethodontidae. III. Patterns of peripheral innervation. J. Morphol. 178:207-224.

Wake, D. B., and C. J. Schneider. 1998. Taxonomy of the plethodontid salamander genus Ensatina. Herpetologica 54:279-298.

Wake, D. B., and N. Shubin. 1998. Limb development in the Pacific giant salamanders, Dicamptodon (Amphibia, Caudata, Dicamptodontidae). Can. J. Zool. 76:2058-2066.

Wake, D. B., and M. H. Wake. 1986. On the development of vertebrae in gymnophione amphibians. Mém. Soc. Zool. France 43:67-70.

Wake, D. B., and K. P. Yanev. 1986. Geographic variation in allozymes in a "ring species," the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii of western North America. Evolution 40:702-715.

Wake, D. B., K. P. Yanev, and C. W. Brown. 1986. Intraspecific sympatry in a "ring species," the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii in southern California. Evolution 40:866-868.

Wake, D. B., K. P. Yanev, and M. M. Frelow. 1989. Sympatry and hybridization in a "ring species": the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. Pp. 134-157 in Speciation and its Consequences (D. Otte and J. A. Endler, eds.). Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Wake, D. B., S. Y. Yang, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1980. Natural hybridization and its evolutionary implications in Guatemalan plethodontid salamanders of the genus Bolitoglossa. Herpetologica 36:335-345.

Wake, D. B., R. G. Zweifel, H. C. Dessauer, G. W. Nace, E. R. Pianka, G. B. Rabb, R. Ruibal, J. W. Wright, and G. R. Zug. 1975a. Collections of preserved amphibians and reptiles in the United States. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular No. 3:1-22.

Wake, D. B., R. G. Zweifel, H. C. Dessauer, G. W. Nace, E. R. Pianka, G. B. Rabb, R. Ruibal, J. W. Wright, and G. R. Zug. 1975b. Report of the committee on resources in herpetology. Copeia 1975:391-404.

Wake, M. H. 1976a. Ontogenetic and intraspecific variation in caecilians. Year Book Amer. Philos. Soc. 1976:365-366.

Wake, M. H. 1976b. The development and replacement of teeth in viviparous caecilians. J. Morphol. 148:33-62.

Wake, M. H. 1977a. Fetal maintenance and its evolutionary significance in the Amphibia: Gymnophiona. J. Herpetol. 11:379-386.

Wake, M. H. 1977b. The reproductive biology of caecilians: an evolutionary perspective. Pp. 73-101 in The Reproductive Biology of Amphibians (D. H. Taylor and S. I. Guttman, eds.). Plenum Press, New York.

Wake, M. H. 1978a. Comments on the ontogeny of Typhlonectes obesus, particularly its dentition and feeding. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 32:1-13.

Wake, M. H. 1978b. The reproductive biology of Eleutherodactylus jasperi (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), with comments on the evolution of live-bearing systems. J. Herpetol. 12:121-133.

Wake, M. H. 1980a. Fetal tooth development and adult replacement in Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): fields versus clones. J. Morphol. 166:203-216.

Wake, M. H. 1980b. Morphometrics of the skeleton of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Part I. The vertebrae, with comparisons to other species. J. Morphol. 165:117-130.

Wake, M. H. 1980c. Reproduction, growth, and population structure of the Central American caecilian Dermophis mexicanus. Herpetologica 36:244-256.

Wake, M. H. 1980d. The reproductive biology of Nectophrynoides malcolmi (Amphibia: Bufonidae), with comments on the evolution of reproductive modes in the genus Nectophrynoides. Copeia 1980:193-209.

Wake, M. H. 1981. Structure and function of the male Mullerian gland in caecilians, with comments on its evolutionary significance. J. Herpetol. 15:17-22.

Wake, M. H. 1982. Diversity within a framework of constraints. Amphibian reproductive modes. Pp. 87-106 in Environmental Adaptation and Evolution: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach (D. Mossakowski and G. Roth, eds.). Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany.

Wake, M. H. 1983. Gymnopismultiplicata, Dermophis mexicanus, and Dermophisparviceps (soldas, suelda con suelda, dos cabezas, caecilians). Pp. 400-401 in Costa Rican Natural History (D. H. Janzen, ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Wake, M. H. 1984a. A new caecilian from Peru (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 35:213-219.

Wake, M. H. 1984b. A new species of Caecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) from Bolivia. Amphibia-Reptilia 5:215-220.

Wake, M. H. 1985a. Oviduct structure and function in non-mammalian vertebrates. Pp. 427-435 in Functional Morphology in Vertebrates: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Vertebrate Morphology. Fortschritte der Zoologie, Band 30 (H.-R. Duncker and G. Fleischer, eds.). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

Wake, M. H. 1985b. The comparative morphology and evolution of the eyes of caecilians (Amphibia, Gymnophiona). Zoomorphology 105:277-295.

Wake, M. H. 1986a. A perspective on the systematics and morphology of the Gymnophiona (Amphibia). Mém. Soc. Zool. France 43:21-38.

Wake, M. H. 1986b. Caecilians. Pp. 16-17 in The Encyclopaedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (T. R. Halliday and K. Adler, eds.). Facts on File, Inc., New York.

Wake, M. H. 1986c. The morphology of Idiocranium russeli (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), with comments on miniaturization through heterochrony. J. Morphol. 189:1-16.

Wake, M. H. 1986d. Urogenital morphology of dipnoans, with comparisons to other fishes and to amphibians. J. Morphol. Suppl. 1:199-216.

Wake, M. H. 1987. A new genus of African caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Herpetol. 21:6-15.

Wake, M. H. 1988a. Gymnopis, G. multiplicata. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 411.1-411.2.

Wake, M. H. 1988b. Minascaecilia, M. sartoria. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 412.1.

Wake, M. H. 1989a. Metamorphosis of the hyobranchial apparatus in Epicrionops (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Rhinatrematidae): replacement of bone by cartilage. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 13e Série (Masson, Paris) 10:171-182.

Wake, M. H. 1989b. Phylogenesis of direct development and viviparity in vertebrates. Pp. 235-250 in Complex Organismal Functions: Integration and Evolution in Vertebrates (D. B. Wake and G. Roth, eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.

Wake, M. H. 1991. The impact of functional morphology and biomechanics on studies of evolutionary biology. Pp. 555-557 in The Unity of Evolutionary Biology: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Systematics and Evolutionary Biology, Vol. I (E. C. Dudley, ed.). Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon.

Wake, M. H. 1992a. Biogeography of Mesoamerican caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot., Suppl. Publ. 1:321-325.

Wake, M. H. 1992b. Evolutionary scenarios, homology and convergence of structural specializations for vertebrate viviparity. Amer. Zool. 32:256-263.

Wake, M. H. 1992c. Morphology, the study of form and function, in modern evolutionary biology. Pp. 289-346 in Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology (D. Futuyma and J. Antonovics, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York.

Wake, M. H. 1992d. Patterns of peripheral innervation of the tongue and hyobranchial apparatus in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Morphol. 212:37-53.

Wake, M. H. 1992e. "Regressive" evolution of special sensory organs in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): opportunity for morphological innovation. Zool. Jb. Anat. 122:325-329.

Wake, M. H. 1992f. Reproduction in caecilians. Pp. 112-120 in Reproductive Biology of South American Vertebrates (W. C. Hamlett, ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York.

Wake, M. H. 1993a. Evolution of oviductal gestation in amphibians. J. Exp. Zool. 266:394-413.

Wake, M. H. 1993b. Evolutionary diversification of cranial and spinal nerves and their targets in the gymnophione amphibians. Acta Anat. 148:160-168.

Wake, M. H. 1993c. Non-traditional characters in the assessment of caecilian phylogenetic relationships. Herpetol. Monogr. 7:42-55.

Wake, M. H. 1993d. The skull as a locomotor organ. Pp. 197-240 in The Skull, Vol. 3. Functional and Evolutionary Mechanisms (J. Hanken and B. K. Hall, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Wake, M. H. 1994a. Caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) in captivity. Pp. 223-228 in Captive Management and Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles. Contributions to Herpetology, Vol. 11 (J. B. Murphy, K. Adler, and J. T. Collins, eds.). Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.

Wake, M. H. 1994b. Comparative morphology of caecilian sperm (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Morphol. 221:261-276.

Wake, M. H. 1994c. The use of unconventional morphological characters in analysis of systematic patterns and evolutionary processes. Pp. 173-200 in Interpreting the Hierarchy of Nature: From Systematic Patterns to Evolutionary Process Theories (L. Grande and O. Rieppel, eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Wake, M. H. 1995. The spermatogenic cycle of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Herpetol. 29:119-122.

Wake, M. H. 1997. Amphibian locomotion in evolutionary time. Zoology (Jena) 100:141-151.

Wake, M. H. 1998a. Amphibian reproduction, overview. Pp. 161-166 in Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Vol. 1 (E. Knobil and J. D. Neill, eds.). Academic Press, San Diego.

Wake, M. H. 1998b. Cartilage in the cloaca: phallodeal spicules in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Morphol. 237:177-186.

Wake, M. H. 1998c. Dermophis oaxacae. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept. 661.1-661.2.

Wake, M. H., and J. A. Campbell. 1983. A new genus and species of caecilian from the Sierra de las Minas of Guatemala. Copeia 1983:857-863.

Wake, M. H., and S. M. Case. 1975. The chromosomes of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Copeia 1975:510-516.

Wake, M. H., and R. Dickie. 1998. Oviduct structure and function and reproductive modes in amphibians. J. Exp. Zool. 282:477-506.

Wake, M. H., A. Dubois, D. R. Frost, T. E. Moore, and R. A. Nussbaum. 1994. Caeciliidae Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814 (Amphibia, Gymnophiona) and Caeciliidae Kolbe, 1880 (Insecta, Psocoptera): proposed removal of the homonymy by the revocation of Opinion 1462 and the adoption of the spelling Caeciliusidae for the psocopteran family name. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51:237-239.

Wake, M. H., J.-M. Exbrayat, and M. Delsol. 1985. The development of the chondrocranium of Typhlonectescompressicaudus (Gymnophiona), with comparison to other species. J. Herpetol. 19:68-77.

Wake, M. H., J. C. Hafner, M. S. Hafner, L. L. Klosterman, and J. L. Patton. 1980. The karyotype of Typhlonectescompressicauda (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) with comments on chromosome evolution in caecilians. Experientia 36:171-172.

Wake, M. H., and J. Hanken. 1982. Development of the skull of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), with comments on skull kinesis and amphibian relationships. J. Morphol. 173:203-223.

Wake, M. H., and K. M. Nygren. 1987. Variation in scales in Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): are scales of systematic utility? Fieldiana, Zool. (new ser.) 36:1-8.

Wake, M. H., and K. Schwenk. 1986. A preliminary report on the morphology and distribution of taste buds in gymnophiones, with comparison to other amphibians. J. Herpetol. 20:254-256.

Wake, M. H., and D. B. Wake. 2000. Developmental morphology of early vertebrogenesis in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): resegmentation and phylogenesis. Zoology 103:68-88.

Wake, M. H., and G. Z. Wurst. 1979. Tooth crown morphology in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). J. Morphol. 159:331-340.

Wake, T. A., D. B. Wake, and M. H. Wake. 1983. The ossification sequence of Aneides lugubris, with comments on heterochrony. J. Herpetol. 17:10-22.

Wake, T. A., M. H. Wake, and R. G. Lesure. 1999. First Quaternary fossil record of caecilians from a Mexican archaeological site. Quat. Res. 52:138-140.

Wang, Y., X. Zeng, Z. Fang, Z. Liu, G. Wu, T. J. Papenfuss, and R. J. Macey. 1996. A new species of the genus Phrynocephalus--Phrynocephalus zetanensis sp. nov. Zool. Res. 17:27-29. [In Chinese.]

Wang, Y.-Z., and K. Autumn. 1990. Home range size and spatial distribution of Phrynocephalus przewalskii, P. axillaris and Eremias velox. Pp. 125-132 in From Water Onto Land--A Volume to Commemorate the Ninetieth Birthday of the Late Professor Liu Cheng-Zhao (E. Zhao, ed.). CSSAR, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. [In Chinese.]

Wang, Y.-Z., X.-M. Zeng, Z.-L. Fang, G.-F. Wu, T. J. Papenfuss, and R. J. Macey. 1999. Study on the relationships of classification, phylogenetics and distribution of the genus Phrynocephalus spp. (Sauria: Agamidae) with the paleogeographical changes during Cenozoic Era in Tibet Plateau. Zool. Res. 20:178-185. [In Chinese.]

Wassersug, R. 1971. On the comparative palatability of some dry-season tadpoles from Costa Rica. Amer. Midl. Nat. 86:101-109.

Wassersug, R. 1972. The mechanism of ultraplanktonic entrapment in anuran larvae. J. Morphol. 137:279-287.

Wassersug, R., and C. M. Hessler. 1971. Tadpole behaviour: aggregation in larval Xenopus laevis. Anim. Behav. 19:386-389.

Wassersug, R. J., and D. B. Wake. 1995. Fossil tadpoles from the Miocene of Turkey. Alytes 12:145-157.

Weisrock, D. W., J. R. Macey, I. H. Ugurtas, A. Larson, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2001. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the "true" salamander clade: rapid branching of numerous highly divergent lineages in Mertensiella luschani associated with the rise of Anatolia. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 18:434-444.

White, M., and J. A. Kolb. 1974. A preliminary study of Thamnophis near Sagehen Creek, California. Copeia 1974:126-136.

Wilhoft, D. C. 1958a. Observations on preferred body temperature and feeding habits of some selected tropical iguanas. Herpetologica 15:161-164.

Wilhoft, D. C. 1958b. The effect of temperature on thyroid histology and survival in the lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Copeia 1958:265-276.

Wilhoft, D. C. 1961. Temperature responses in two tropical Australian skinks. Herpetologica 17:109-113.

Wilhoft, D. C. 1963a. Gonadal histology and seasonal changes in the tropical Australian lizard Leiolopisma rhomboidalis. J. Morphol. 113:185-204.

Wilhoft, D. C. 1963b. Reproduction in the tropical Australian skink, Leiolopisma rhomboidalis. Amer. Midl. Nat. 70:442-461.

Wilhoft, D. C. 1964. Seasonal changes in the thyroid and interrenal glands of the tropical Australian skink, Leiolopisma rhomboidalis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 4:42-53.

Wilhoft, D. C., and J. D. Anderson. 1960. Effect of acclimation on the preferred body temperature of the lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Science (Washington, D.C.) 131:610-611.

Wilhoft, D. C., and W. B. Quay. 1961. Testicular histology and seasonal changes in the lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. J. Morphol. 108:95-106.

Wood, W. F. 1940. A new race of salamander, Ensatina eschscholtzii picta, from northern California and southern Oregon. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 42:425-427.

Worthington R. D., and D. B. Wake. 1971. Larval morphology and ontogeny of the ambystomatid salamander, Rhyacotriton olympicus. Amer. Midl. Nat. 85:349-365.

Worthington R. D., and D. B. Wake. 1972. Patterns of regional variation in the vertebral column of terrestrial salamanders. J. Morphol. 137:257-277.

Wurst, G. Z., A. K. Pearson, and P. Licht. 1989. Pituitary gland of the garter snake (Thamnophis): morphology and immunocytochemistry. J. Morphol. 200:131-139.

Wyss, A. R., and K. de Queiroz. 1984. Phylogenetic methods and the early history of amniotes. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 4:604-608.

Yanev, K. P. 1980. Biogeography and distribution of three parapatric salamander species in coastal and borderland California. Pp. 531-550 in The California Islands: Proceedings of a Multidisciplinary Symposium (D. M. Power, ed.). Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California.

Yanev, K. P., and D. B. Wake. 1981. Genic differentiation in a relict desert salamander, Batrachosepscampi. Herpetologica 37:16-28.

Yang, S. Y., M. Soulé, and G. C. Gorman. 1974. Anolis lizards of the eastern Caribbean: a case study in evolution. I. Genetic relationships, phylogeny, and colonization sequence of roquet group. Syst. Zool. 23:387-399.

Zamudio, K. R., and H. W. Greene. 1997. Phylogeography of the bushmaster (Lachesis muta: Viperidae): implications for neotropical biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 62:421-442.

Zamudio, K. R., D. L. Hardy, Sr., M. Martins, and H. W. Greene. 2000. Fang tip spread, puncture distance, and suction for snake bite. Toxicon 38:723-728.

Zamudio, K. R., and G. Parra-Olea. 2000. Reproductive mode and female reproductive cycles of two endemic Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma taurus and Phrynosoma braconnieri). Copeia 2000:222-229.

Zamudio, K. R., and B. Sinervo. 2000. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:14427-14432.

Zeng, X., Y. Wang, Z. Fang, G. Wu, Z. Liu, T. J. Papenfuss, and R. J. Macey. 1996. Study on the karyotype and Ag--NORs of Thermophis baileyi. Hereditas (Beijing) 18:4-6. [In Chinese.]

Zeng, X.-M., Y.-Z. Wang, Z.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Fang, G.-F. Wu, T. J. Papenfuss, and R. J. Macey. 1997. Karyotypes of nine species in the genus Phrynocephalus, with discussion of karyotypic evolution of Chinese Phrynocephalus. Acta Zool. Sinica 43:399-410. [In Chinese.]

Zeng, X.-M., Y.-Z. Wang, Z.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Fang, G.-F. Wu, T. J. Papenfuss, and R. J. Macey. 1998. Karyotypes of Chinese species of the genus Teratoscincus (Gekkonidae). Jpn. J. Herpetol. 17:139-144.

Zhao, E., J. R. Macey, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1988. A new species of Rana from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Chinese Herpetol. Res. 2:1-3.

Ziegler, A. C. 1969. A theoretical determination of tooth succession in the therapsid Diademodon. J. Paleontol. 43:771-778.

Zweifel, R. G. 1952a. Notes on the lizards of the Coronados Islands, Baja California, Mexico. Herpetologica 8:9-11.

Zweifel, R. G. 1952b. Pattern variation and evolution of the mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata. Copeia 1952:152-168.

Zweifel, R. G. 1954a. Adaptation to feeding in the snake Contia tenuis. Copeia 1954:299-300.

Zweifel, R. G. 1954b. A new frog of the genus Rana from western Mexico with a key to the Mexican species of the genus. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 53:131-141.

Zweifel, R. G. 1954c. A new Rana from the Pliocene of California. Copeia 1954:85-86.

Zweifel, R. G. 1954d. A new species of Chersodromus from Mexico. Herpetologica 10:17-19.

Zweifel, R. G. 1954e. Notes on the distribution of some reptiles in western Mexico. Herpetologica 10:145-149.

Zweifel, R. G. 1955. Ecology, distribution, and systematics of frogs of the Rana boylei group. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 54:207-291.

Zweifel, R. G., and K. S. Norris. 1955. Contribution to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico: descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. Amer. Midl. Nat. 54:230-249.

Zylberberg, L., and M. H. Wake. 1990. Structure of the scales of Dermophis and Microcaecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona), and a comparison to dermal ossifications of other vertebrates. J. Morphol. 206:25-43.


Home | Collections | Research | Education | Conservation | Affiliated Orgs | History | News & Events | Directory | GrantsJobsRes
For questions, email: mvz@uclink.berkeley.edu Rev. 30 July 2001, CC
University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, Copyright © 2001, The Regents of the University of California.