Index to Physics Notebooks
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Book B - Waves Book E - Optics
Book C - Heat and Matter Book F - Modern Physics
Book D - Electricity and Magnetism Book G - Astronomy and Perception
Applets

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Book A: Mechanics

Acceleration

A+0+0 "Coin and Feather" fall in an evacuated rotatable tube.

A+0+5 Timed free fall: Ball drops 2 meters through electronic timing gate.

A+0+10 Atwood machine: Unbalanced weights on a pulley accelerate slowly.

A+0+15 A falling weight accelerates a car horizontally.

A+0+20 Acceleration of a steel ball down an inclined plane with metronome.

A+0+22 Inclined airtrack with gliders and timing gates.

A+0+23 Inclined airtrack: Cart and ball accelerate in unison.

A+0+25 Cork float accelerometer: Cork and water in sealed flask.

A+0+30 A chain dropped onto a force plate.

A+0+35 A ball swung on a string held by a sleeve.

A+0+40 Conical pendulum: Similar to A+0+35 with standard weights.

A+0+45 Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.

A+0+47 Swing water in a bucket.

A+0+50 Candles rotating about an axis.

A+0+55 Mercury and colored water in a rotating glass vessel.

A+0+56 Flattening of the earth: Rotating brass hoops.

A+0+57 Rotating loop of chain rolls across bench.

A+0+58 Mechanical governor device.

A+0+59 Chain lariat with hand drill or electric rotator.

A+0+60 Film: "Zero G", sound, 14 min.

A+0+65 Film: "Conservation laws in zero G", sound, 14 min.

A+0+70 Film loop: "Inertial forces: Centripetal acceleration", 3:15 min.

A+0+75 Film loop: "Inertial forces:Translational acceleration", 2:05 min.

A+0+80 Java Applet: The Ramp

Conservation of Energy

A+5+0 Ball on string mounts on blackboard and pivots on lower rod.

A+5+10 Equal path lengths ball race.

A+5+15 Brachistochrone: Three balls falling along different trajectories.

A+5+20 Bowling ball pendulum swings back to nose.

A+5+25 Film loop: "Conservation of energy: Pole vault", 3:55 min.

A+5+30 Cart and ball down inclined track.

Frames of Reference

A+10+0 Film: "Frames of reference", sound, 28 min.

A+10+40 Film loop: "Galilean relativity I", ball dropped from mast of ship,2:55min.

A+10+45 Film loop:"Galilean relativity II", object dropped from aircraft, 3:40 min.

A+10+50 Film loop: "Galilean relativity III", projectile fired vertically, 3:00 min.

A+10+55 Film loop: "A matter of relative motion", 3:40 min.

Friction

A+12+0 Blocks, with various surfaces slide on an inclined plane.

A+12+1 Film: "A million to one", flea and dry ice puck, sound, 5 min.

A+12+5 Weighted wood block dragged horizontally by force sensor.

A+12+10 Plank oscillates on oppositely rotating bicycle wheels.

Forces

A+14+0 Weight on a vertical spring with markers on stand.

A+14+1 Block pulled horizontally by a spring.

A+14+5 Force table: Forces on a car on a horizontal table.

A+14+10 Force table: Forces on a car on an adjustable inclined plane.

A+14+15 Precision lever: Balance beam on stand plus weight set.

A+14+16 A meterstick lever on a free-standing fulcrum with weights.

A+14+17 Standard pan balance with assorted weights.

Gravitation

A+15+0 The Cavendish experiment: Model and actual apparatus to show.

A+15+1 Film loop: "The Cavendish experiment", 4:25 min.

A+15+10Java Applet Orbiting Bodies

A+15+30 Film: "The law of gravitation "(Feynman), sound, 56 min.

Applet:

Kepler's Second Law is illustrated by applying it to the individual planets and Halley's comet. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/keplerlaw2.htm

Linear Inertia

A+20+0 Card snapped from under a weight by a leaf spring.

A+20+5 Tablecloth yanked out from under dishes.

A+20+10 Breaking thread above and below weight.

A+20+20 Bed of nails

Rotational Inertia

A+25+0 Two disks, one weighted in center and other on rim, roll down ramp.

A+25+5 Moment of inertia: Hoop or disk rotated by falling weight.

A+25+10 Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.

Angular Momentum

A+30+0 Minor's apparatus: Movable discs rotated by falling weight.

A+30+5 Maxwell's wheel: Flywheel with axle, supported on strings or stand.

A+30+10 Rotational inertia device: Sliding weights on rotating rod.

A+30+15 Rotating chair with dumbbells or weighted bicycle wheel.

A+30+20 Maxwell's top, has adjustable center of gravity.

A+30+25 Large conical aluminum top.

A+30+30 Gyroscopes; various.

A+30+35 Sire's Polytrope.

A+30+40 Film: "Conservation laws in zero G", sound, 14 min..

A+30+45 Large gyroscope in a suitcase.

Linear Momentum

A+35+0 Balls of equal and unequal mass on strings, separated by a leaf spring.

A+35+2Two people in rolling chairs pushing and pulling

A+35+5 Elastic collisions: Seven steel balls roll on a wooden track.

A+35+10 Elastic collisions: Five hanging balls and two unequal hanging balls.

A+35+12 Elastic collisions: Double and Multiple Ball Drop.

A+35+16 .22 rifle fires vertically, bullet lifts small wood cylinder.

A+35+17 Ballistic pendulum: Suspended .22 rifle fires into suspended block.

A+35+18 Inelastic collisions: Another ballistic pendulum.

A+35+20 Three meter airtrack with gliders that rebound elastically, or stick.

A+35+25 Plastic pucks on air table.

A+35+28 Executive size pool table

A+35+30 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.

A+35+35 Airtrack: Long track with two gliders coupled by a spring hoop.

A+35+40 Train on circular track moves one way and track moves the other.

A+35+45 Film loop: "Colliding freight cars", 2:45 min.

A+35+50 Film loop: "Dynamics of a billiard ball", 4:00 min.

Motion in One Dimension

A+37+5 Airtrack: Glider passes "start" and "stop" gates on digital timer.

A+37+10 Electric winch tows car at constant speed.

A+37+11 Electric winch tows car at constant speed, then constant acceleration.

Physical Measurements

A+45+0 3"x 4" slides of standards and units and cassette tape of WWV.

A+45+10 Film: "Powers of ten", sound, 10 min.

A+45+15 Solids to show; cone, pyramid, icosahedron, etc.

A+45+20 Wall chart of metric system.

Projectiles

A+50+0 Dropped and shot balls hit bench simultaneously.

A+50+5 Water projector: Adjustable angle water jet in front of grid.

A+50+10 Monkey and the hunter.

A+50+15 Reaction jet: "L" tube rotates as water flows through it.

A+50+20 Rocket is filled with water and compressed air and launched vertically.

A+50+25 Carbon dioxide propelled rocket flies across room on wire.

A+50+26 Carbon dioxide propelled rotational device.

A+50+35 Ballistics car: Ball ejected from rolling car drops back in.

Applet:

Newton's cannon: View projectile motion with the earth's curvature taken into account. http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109N/more_stuff/Applets/newt/newtmtn.html

Rotational Dynamics

A+55+0 "Sweet Spot": Meterstick pivot point changes with point struck.

A+55+05 Rolling spool: String on spool is pulled at various angles.

A+55+10 Cycloid disk draws path on chalkboard.

Applet:

An illustration showing the velocity and acceleration vectors in rolling without slipping: http://www.physics.gatech.edu/academics/classes/summer2006/2211/a/main/demos/Roll/Roll.html

Statics and Mechanical Equilibrium

A+60+0 Meterstick suspended in mid-air by horizontal strings and weights.

A+60+5 Force on hinged beam measured with transducer.

A+60+10 Forces on crane boom measured with transducer.

A+60+15 Two transducers measure forces from centered hanging mass.

A+60+16 Same as A+60+15, but mass in different position.

A+60+20 Car hangs balanced by forces in mid-air over removable inclined plane.

A+60+25 Disk (weighted off-center) rolls up inclined plane.

A+60+30 Irregular shapes to determine center of mass using plumb bob.

A+60+32 Center of gravity (toy) objects.

A+60+35 Static equilibrium for a rope on a spool. Same as A+55+5.

A+60+37 Rotation about the center of mass: Object to throw.

A+60+40 Anatomical models: Skull, Arm, Leg

Torque

A+65+0 Twisting a rod with one end fixed and the other hung with weights.

A+65+10 Torque wrench to demonstrate.

Vectors

A+70+0 X,Y,Z-coordinate system with vector arrows.

A+70+5 Vector arrows of various sizes and colors fit in wooden bases.

A+70+10 Relative velocity: Three electric cars on tracks make chalk line.

A+70+20 Rope with slug(unit of mass) in center is lifted from ends.

A+70+25 Film loop: "Vector addition: Velocity of a boat", 3:35 min.

Applet:

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors, and see the effect this has on their vector cross product. http://www.phy.syr.edu/courses/java-suite/crosspro.html

Mechanical Advantage

A+80+10 Pulley sets.

A+80+20 Chain hoist.

A+80+30 Block and tackle.

A+80+40 Block and tackle: Bosun's chair.

Book B: Waves

Acoustics and Vibrations Animations: Click here for various applets dealing with sound, vibrations and other wave phenomena. http://www.gmi.edu/~drussell/Demos.html

Chaotic Oscillations

B+5+0 Chaotic pendulum.

Applet:

Produce a Poincare section for a driven pendulum. The initial conditions can be controlled. http://www.iopb.res.in/~vshenoi/scienceday/fundemoapplets/JAVA/pendchao/pendchao.html

Simple Harmonic Motion

B+10+0 Mass on a spring.

B+10+1 Simple pendulum: Ball on a string.

B+10+2 Torsion pendulum with removable weights.

B+10+3 Compound pendulum: Meterstick with movable brass weight.

B+10+5 Large torsion pendulum with different diameter rods.

B+10+10 Physical pendulum: Steel bar with two pivot points.

B+10+15 Ball rolling in a spherical dish on OHP.

B+10+20 Large damped oscillator (mass on spring) with various damping disks.

B+10+25 Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.

B+10+30 Damped oscillations: Flat steel spring with removable weights.

B+10+35 Lissajous figures with laser and two signal generators.

B+10+40 Transparencies: Lissajous figures for OHP.

B+10+45Java Applet: Simple Harmonic Motion & Uniform Circular Motion

B+10+50 Ball on turntable rotates beneath synchronized pendulum .

B+10+55Java Applet: A-vector and V-vector arrows

B+10+60 Tuning forks, various.

B+10+65 Pocket watch with mirror and laser twitches with balance wheel motion.

B+10+70 Four pendulums on rod: Same mass, different lengths.

B+10+72 Four pendulums on rod: Same length, different masses.

B+10+75 Inverted pendulum.

Applet:

Create a Lissajous figure. The frequencies of both the x and y oscillations may be varied. http://www.mta.ca/faculty/science/physics/suren/Lissajous/Lissajous.html

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

B+15+0 Two large pendulums coupled with spring.

B+15+1 Three large pendulums coupled with two springs.

B+15+5 Wilberforce pendulum: Oscillates between rotation and up-down.

B+15+10 Two pendulums on a frame of flexible steel.

B+15+15 Two balls hung on the same string, one in middle, one at the end.

Forced Oscillations/Resonance

B+20+0 Driven harmonic oscillator: Motor driven mass on spring.

B+20+5 Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.

B+20+10 Damped oscillations in a resonant LCR circuit on an oscilloscope.

B+20+15 One tuning fork with tuned cavity, drives another.

B+20+20 Film : "Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse",silent, 4 min.

B+20+25 Set of three coupled inverted pendulums on wood base.

B+20+30 Beaker is broken by sound from speaker.

B+20+35 Driven oscillations in a multiple spring-mass system.

Travelling Waves

B+25+0 Transverse wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+1 Transverse 3-dimensional wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+5 Longitudinal wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+10 Rubber rope stretched across front of room.

B+25+15 Brass spring on white plastic sheet.

B+25+20 Suspended slinky on threads for compression wave.

B+25+25 Mechanical water wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+30 Torsional wave device, large or small.

Applet:

View patterns of oscillating air molecules in a tube caused by a traveling or standing wave. http://www.mta.ca/faculty/science/physics/suren/Lwave/Lwave01.html

Observe a wave pulse as it reflects off a fixed or a free end. http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/reflect/reflect.html

Superposition : Fourier Principles/Complex Waves

B+30+0 Fourier synthesis.

B+30+1 Transparencies: Fourier superpositions.

B+30+5 Fourier decomposition: microphone and oscilloscope.

Applets:

Build a waveform by combining a variety of different frequencies. The simulation also allows the user to hear what the waveform sounds like. http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~teb/java/ntnujava/sound/sound.html

Observe how the superposition of waves with different frequencies leads to different forms of dispersion. http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/Superposition/GroupVelocity.html

Interference

B+35+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.

B+35+5 Acoustic interference with Quincke (trombone) tube and sonalert.

B+35+10 Interference of sound waves from two speakers, same generator.

B+35+12 Interference between two ultrasound sources (40 kHz).

B+35+15 Interference in a ripple tank uses arc lamp or incandescent light.

B+35+20 Beats with tuning forks on tuned cavities.

B+35+25 Beats with two beer bottles blown manually.

B+35+30 Beats from two speakers observed on an oscilloscope.

Applets:

View the interference pattern created by multiple sources. The locations of the sources can be varied. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/physlets/einterference.htm

Beats: View the superposition of two traveling waves with slightly different frequencies. The frequencies can be adjusted. http://www.mta.ca/faculty/science/physics/suren/Beats/Beats.html

Another applet on beats: View the beat pattern produced by two waves with slightly different frequencies. The center frequency and beat frequency can be adjusted. http://physics.csustan.edu/java/tutorials/oscillations/beats.htm

Sound Spectrum/Sources

B+45+0 Steel spring pendulum, inverted, vibrates at 10 Hz.

B+45+5 Giant tuning fork, barely audible, displayed with stroboscope.

B+45+10 Ultrasound transducers (40 kHz) as both sources and receivers.

B+45+15 Bell ringing in a jar evacuated with pump.

B+45+20 Savart's wheel: Toothed wheel and cardboard or air jet.

B+45+25 Siren: large, electric motor driven.

B+45+30 Compressed air jet blows through spinning disk with holes.

B+45+32 Twirling Tube

B+45+35 Sprockets on shaft rotate against a card to make sound.

B+45+40 Caruga horn: Varigated tube to blow through

B+45+42 Hoot Tube

B+45+45 Galton's whistle: Compressed air whistle.

B+45+50 Helmholtz resonators drive radiometer vanes, using tuning forks.

B+45+55 Casio electronic synthesizer with amp and speaker.

Standing Waves/Resonance

B+50+0 Three Java Applets: Superposition of waves

B+50+5 Model of longitudinal standing wave, hand-cranked.

B+50+10 Rope and strobe: Transverse standing waves, motor driven.

B+50+15 Reuben's tube: Standing sound waves in flames along a large pipe.

B+50+20 Set of eight organ pipes to make a major scale.

B+50+25 Tunable organ pipe.

B+50+30 Set of ten suspended metal rods struck with a wooden mallet.

B+50+35 Xylophone.

B+50+45 Unbalanced spinning wheel vibrates spring steel reeds.

B+50+50 Sonometer: Resonant chamber with bowed strings (2).

B+50+55 Torison wave model.

Applets:

View patterns of oscillating air molecules in a tube caused by a traveling or standing wave. http://www.mta.ca/faculty/science/physics/suren/Lwave/Lwave01.html

View standing wave patterns in a pipe for different harmonic numbers. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/stlwaves.htm

See how the superposition of incident and reflected waves creates a standing wave. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/stwaverefl.htm

Vibrational Modes

B+55+0 Film loop: "Vibrations of a metal plate", 3:45 min.

B+55+1 Film loop: "Vibrations of a drum", 3:25 min.

B+55+5 Chladni's disc: Bowed disk forms patterns in sprinkled salt.

B+55+10 Large glass bowl with ping pong balls and violin bow.

B+55+15 Young's modulus rod: Hammer and rod with nodes marked.

B+55+20 Longitudinal wave apparatus: Ball bounces off end of stroked rod.

B+55+25 Kundt's tube: Powder in tube shows standing waves.

Applet:

Observe the vibrational modes for a rectangular membrane. http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/MembraneSquare/Square.html

Observe the vibrational modes for a drum. http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/MembraneCircle/Circle.html

Speed of Sound

B+60+0 Speed of sound in air: Speaker resonates air column over water.

B+60+5 Measurement of speed of sound with microphone, speaker, oscilloscope.

Doppler Shift

B+65+0 Sonalert swung on the end of a string.

B+65+10 Film loop: "Doppler effect", 3:45 min.

Shock Waves

B+67+0 Whip

B+67+5 Film loop: "Formation of shock waves", 3:45 min.

Applets:

An illustration of the Doppler effect for different speeds, including shock waves for supersonic motion. http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos/doppler/doppler.html

An illustration of the Doppler effect involving a moving ambulance and a person standing nearby. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/dopplereff.htm

Music and the Ear

B+70+0 Ear models.

B+70+5 Film: "The Piano", sound, 27 min.

Book C: Properties of Heat and Matter

Weather and the Atmosphere

C+0+0 Humidity: Hygrometers to show.

Calorimetry

C+5+0 Computer demo: Nesting can calorimeter, runs 3 min.

Carnot Cycle

C+10+0 Carnot cycle models: Piston/cylinder, PVT surface.

C+10+5 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.

C+10+10 Film loop: "Properties of a gas", 3:18 min.

Conduction

C+15+0 Copper/wood cylinder wrapped with paper over bunsen burner.

C+15+1 Boiling water in paper cup; cup does not burn.

C+15+2 Copper gauze over flame; gas burns only above gauze.

C+15+3 Set of metal rods: Heat-sensitive paint changes color.

C+15+4 Computer demo: Conductivity (see C+15+3), runs 5 min.

Convection

C+20+0 Heat water in "O" shaped tube adding a dye.

C+20+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.

C+20+10 Cardboard strip drawn from glass tube extinguishes candle.

C+20+15 Hot air balloon: Dry cleaner bag over Bunsen burner rises to ceiling.

Engines and Pumps

C+22+0 Engine models: Steam, 4-cycle Otto.

C+22+05 Model of an air pump.

C+22+10 Operating Sterling cycle engine, gas powered.

C+22+15 Operating Sterling cycle engine, hot water powered.

Applet:

Observe an engine undergoing an Otto cycle, along with its P-V diagram. http://www.shermanlab.com/science/physics/thermo/engines/OttoG.php

Fluid Dynamics

C+25+0 Flettnor rotorcar blown with fan.

C+25+02 Smoke Ring Generator

C+25+04 Airzooka

C+25+05 Bernoulli's principle: Ball suspended in air stream.

C+25+10 Glass standpipes: Water flows through tube, heights vary.

C+25+11 Glass standpipes with a constriction. Similar to C+25+10.

C+25+15 Glass aspirator: Compressed air draws colored water up glass tube.

C+25+16 Compressed air through funnel sucks in ball.

C+25+17 Compressed air attracts card with pin to holder.

C+25+20 Venturi meter: Manometer tubes on tapered wind tunnel tube.

C+25+25 Pitot tube inserted in wind stream with manometer indicator.

C+25+30 Two roof models, hinged, placed in wind stream.

C+25+35 Video camera shows fluid flow around various objects.

C+25+40 Water in vertical standpipe with holes at different heights.

C+25+45 Hydraulic ram water pump, working model.

C+25+50 A water vortex in two soda bottles joined vertically.

C+25+55 A vortex tube seperates compressed air into jets of hot and cold air.

Surface Tension and Capillary Action

C+27+0 Set of capillary tubes and dye on video camera.

C+27+05 Various bubble frames.

C+27+10 Soap boat or camphor boats in one meter square pan of water.

C+27+20 Wire sieve boat floats on water until alcohol is added.

Fluid Statics

C+30+0 Revolving "drumhead" with manometer shows pressure in water tank.

C+30+05 Magdeburg's hemispheres(cast iron) evacuated, can't be separated.

C+30+10 Hydraulic jack with pressure gauge, breaks 2"x 2" piece of wood.

C+30+15 Archimedes' principle: Cup and plug on balance beam.

C+30+17 Archimedes' principle: weighing beakers in water.

C+30+20 Archimedes' principle: Fish submerged in water on balance beam.

C+30+25 Archimedes' principle: Aluminum and brass cylinders.

C+30+30 Film loop: "Archimedes' principle", 3:40 min.

C+30+35 Cartesian divers: Pressure on cap sends divers sinking.

C+30+40 Torricelli Barometer: Column of mercury in bell jar.

C+30+45 Large model of aneroid barometer.

C+30+50 Pascal's vases: Water in removable vases with pressure gauge.

C+30+52 Interconnected set of glass vases of different shapes.

C+30+53 Interconnected tube with immiscible liquids.

C+30+55 Working model of the lung: Balloons in a bell jar over a diaphragm.

C+30+60 Suction cup holds large mass suspended from heavy glass plate.

C+30+65 Collapse 1 gallon metal can with vacuum pump.

C+30+68 Vacuum Cannon

C+30+70 The weight of air.

C+30+75 Vacuum hoist, working model.

C+30+80 Inversion table and blood pressure monitor

Heat and Work

C+35+0 Mechanical equivalent of heat: Aluminum cylinder, crank, rope with 5 kg weight and large LED display.

Heat Capacity

C+40+0 Ball race: Five different balls heated and placed on paraffin sheet.

Heat of Fusion

C+45+0 Computer demo: Heat of fusion of tin.

Irreversibility and Fluctuations

C+50+0 Java Applet: Gas mixing simulation

C+50+05 Black balls and white balls in a box are shaken.

C+50+10 Film loop: "Reversibility of time", 3:40 min.

C+50+15 Film: "Symmetry in physical law" (Feynman), sound, 57 min.

C+50+20 Film: "Distinction of past and future "(Feynman), sound, 46 min.

C+50+25 Film: "Probability and uncertainty "(Feynman), sound, 56 min.

C+50+30 Drum in glycerine rotates to smear line of dye into a plane and back.

Kinetic Theory and Gas Models

C+55+0 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls on OHP.

C+55+05 Hexstat probability device.

C+55+10 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.

C+55+15 Brownian motion: Smoke particles viewed using TV camera.

C+55+20 Brownian motion: Like C+55+0, with an aluminum disk added.

C+55+25 Stoekle's apparatus: Heated tube with mercury and glass bits.

C+55+30 Ruchardt's tube: Ball oscillates in a vertical glass tube on jug.

C+55+35Diffusion of Ammonia and HCl.

C+55+40 Osmosis of helium through semi-porous cup.

C+55+45 Viscosity of air: One rotating disk drives another.

C+55+55 Breathe helium, voice pitch rises; breathe SF6, voice pitch lowers.

C+55+60 Equipartition of Energy: Different mass balls bounce out at different times.

Applets:

Gas Law Program: View a model of gas molecules in motion, and vary pressure, volume, temperature, or number of moles. A graph of particle speeds is also shown. http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314F00/Laboratory/GLP.htm

Follow the path of a particle undergoing Brownian motion. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t=41

Liquification of a Gas

C+60+0 Hydraulic pump liquifies CO2 gas in glass column.

C+60+05 LN2 demos: pewter bell and spring, color change tube, LN2 cannon.

C+60+10 Film: "Unusual properties of liquid helium", sound, 16 min.

Molecular Models and Crystal Structure

C+62+0 Molecular models, ball and stick.

C+62+05 Film: "Bubble model of a metal", silent, 11 min.

C+62+10 Wave surfaces of crystals.

C+62+15 Model of calcite crystal.

C+62+20 Assorted crystals to show.

C+62+25 Wall chart of periodic table.

Radiation

C+65+0 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench.

C+65+2 Light the Match.

C+65+05 Computer demo: Kirchhoff's radiation law, runs 15 min.

C+65+10 Large transformer heats metal strip with chalk marks on it.

C+65+15 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.

C+65+20 Box with white interior appears black from hole in the side.

C+65+25 FLIR T200 Infrared camera

Applets:

Two slightly different applets for showing the blackbody radiation curve:

http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/prf/PRF.html

http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/physlets/.htm

Temperature and Expansion

C+70+0 Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.

C+70+05 Heated iron wire stretches, rotates pointer.

C+70+06 Heated horizontal nichrome wire stretches, weight sags.

C+70+10 Heated steel rod expands, raises pointer,breaks pin on cooling.

C+70+15 Ring and ball: Ball fits through ring only after ring is heated.

C+70+20 Ice bomb: Iron sphere ruptured by freezing water.

C+70+22 Heating a rubber band: negative coefficient of thermal expansion

C+70+25 Cubic coefficient of expansion: Dissectable wooden cube.

C+70+30 Steam gun: Friction heated water in tube shoots a cork.

C+70+32 LN2 in a model cannon shoots a cork.

C+70+35 Bimetallic strip: Brass/invar strip curves when heated.

C+70+40 Bimetallic switch: Change in temperature lights cold/hot lamps.

C+70+45 Franklin's pulse glass: Two glass bulbs and tube containing ether.

C+70+47 Dippy bird: Large glass bird containing ether oscillates.

C+70+50 Piston and cylinder compress/expand air measuring temp. and pressure.

C+70+55 Fire syringe: paper is ignited in a cylinder with a piston.

C+70+60 CO2 fire extinguisher: Expanding gas freezes into snow.

C+70+65 Cooling by expansion: Jar with water compressed with air.

C+70+70 Hot water geyser, runs 5-10 min.

C+70+72 Superheated Steam: steam in heated coil scorches paper.

C+70+75 Boyle's Law: At constant T, Pressure times Volume is a constant.

C+70+80 Gay-Lussac's Law: At constant V, Pressure is proportional to Temperature.

C+70+85 Charles' Law: At constant P, Volume is proportional to Temperature.

Applet:

Observe effect of adding or removing heat or changing volume in an isochoric, isobaric, isothermal, or adiabatic process. http://mysite.verizon.net/pmrenault/thermo.html

Thermometry

C+75+0 Measurement of temperature: Various types of thermometers.

C+75+05 Transparency: Comparison of F°, C°, and K temperature scales.

C+75+10 Transparency: Chronological history of the concepts of heat.

C+75+15 Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.

C+75+20 Liquid Crystals: sheet changes colors with body temperature.

Triple Point

C+80+0 Triple Point: Cooled water in sealed cell exhibits all three phases.

C+80+02 Freezing liquid Nitrogen.

C+80+5 Triple Point demo: Water boils under vacuum making ice.

C+80+10 P.V.T. surface model for water.

C+80+15 P.V.T. surface model for carbon dioxide.

C+80+20 Wall chart of isothermals.

Mechanical Properties of Materials

C+90+0 Elasticity: Balls bouncing on steel or glass cylinder.

C+90+5 Breaking point of a wire is measured on a spring scale.

C+90+10 Young's modulus of elasticity: Weight stretches wire.

C+90+15 Shear: Stack of masonite squares.

C+90+16 Shear: Foam block.

C+90+20 Viscosity set: Pistons in oil and water-filled glass tubes.

C+90+25 Prince Rupert's Drops.

Book D: Electricity and Magnetism

Capacitance

D+0+0 Attraction between horizontal plates of a charged capacitor.

D+0+2 Various capacitors to show.

D+0+04 Parallel plate capacitor with dielectric materials and electroscope.

D+0+06 Capacitor doorbell driven by Van de Graaff generator.

D+0+08 Series capacitor array.

D+0+10 Parallel capacitors array: A charged capacitor charges the others.

D+0+12 Visual charge/discharge of a capacitor through a load.

D+0+14 Computer demo: Charge/discharge of a capacitor, runs at least 1 min.

D+0+16 Discharging a capacitor through a lamp.

D+0+18 Capacitors with a series neon bulb on A.C. and D.C.

D+0+20 Capacitor in series in an audio circuit: High pass filter.

D+0+22 Effects of changing a D.C. voltage in a series RC circuit.

D+0+24 Capacitor in parallel in an audio circuit: Low pass filter.

D+0+26 Capacitor in parallel in a D.C. circuit.

D+0+28 Energy storage in a commercial capacitor. Loud bang!

D+0+30 Oscillator made with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.

D+0+32 Same as D+0+30 using speaker for audio tone generation.

D+0+34 Same as D+0+30 using oscilloscope to display waveform.

Applet:

Time evolution of an RC circuit: http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/ntnujava/rc/erc_circuits.htm

Electromagnetic Oscillations

D+05+0 Resonance in a series LCR circuit using 120 v.a.c.

D+5+1 LCR paradox

D+05+02 LCR series resonance curve of V vs. F (2 - 20kHz) on an oscilloscope.

D+05+04 High frequency filtering using a capacitor and inductor.

D+05+06 Crystal radio circuit for AM reception.

D+05+08 Damped oscillations in a resonant LCR circuit on an oscilloscope.

D+05+10 85 MHz radio transmitter, with indicating lamp on dipole antenna.

D+05+12 Seibt effect: Wire wound glass tube with D+5+10 transmitter.

D+05+14 Standing waves on two parallel wires, with D+5+10 transmitter.

D+05+16 Lodge's experiment: Spark gap radio transmitter and receiver.

D+05+18 3 cm. microwave klystron oscillator with cavity and waveguides.

D+05+20 3 cm. microwave transmitter and receiver.

D+05+22 Magnetron assembly to show.

D+05+24 Waveguide pieces to show.

D+05+26 Standing waves (micro or sound) in an adjustable cavity.

D+05+30 Wall chart of electromagnetic spectrum.

D+05+32 Plexiglas model of electromagnetic wave.

D+05+34 LEDs oscillate in stored energy LC circuit.

Applets:

Observe the oscillations in an LC circuit. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/osccirc.htm

Impedance of series RLC circuits: See how a plot of current as a function of frequency changes when R, L, or C are changed. http://mysite.verizon.net/vzeoacw1/impedance.html

RLC Circuits (DC power source): Observe how the voltages in the circuit evolve with time. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/ntnujava/electronics/erlc_circuits_dc.htm

An illustration of a traveling electromagnetic wave. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/emwave.htm

Electrostatics

D+10+0 Electric fields: Lines of force shown on an OHP.

D+10+02 Transparency: Mapping of an electric field.

D+10+04 Pith balls on thread, with positive and negative charged rods.

D+10+06 Attraction and repulsion of charged styrofoam balls.

D+10+08 Braun and Leaf electroscopes.

D+10+09 Discharging an electroscope through ionization

D+10+10 Faraday's ice pail: Charge induced on the outside of a pail.

D+10+12 Charge resides on the outside of a conductor.

D+10+13 Faraday cage: blocks signal from portable radio

D+10+14 Charging an electroscope by induction.

D+10+16 Separation of charge using electrical tape and an electroscope.

D+10+18 Electrophorous: Cat fur on teflon, acetate on lucite.

D+10+20 Van de Graaff generator.

D+10+22 Wimshurst machine, large or small.

D+10+24 Electrostatic pinwheel:Van de Graaff makes pinwheel spin.

D+10+26 Various Leyden jars to show.

D+10+28 Electrostatic doorbell: Ball bangs between charged plates.

D+10+30 Kelvin water drop electrostatic charge generator.

Applet:

Electric field diagram for two point charges: http://web.mit.edu/jbelcher/www/java/vecnodyncirc/vecnodyncirc.html

Faraday's Law

D+15+0 Bar magnet induces current in a coil, shown on galvanometer.

D+15+1 Oscillating magnets in coupled coils

D+15+02 Elementary generator: Bar moved in magnetic field.

D+15+04 Earth inductor: Coil spun in Earth's field makes voltage.

D+15+06 Generator: Coil with DC commutator rotates between magnets.

D+15+08 Alternator: Coil with AC commutator rotates between magnets.

D+15+10 Hand-cranked AC alternator powers 12 volt lamp.

D+15+11 Hand-cranked DC generator powers 120 volt lamp.

D+15+12 Back EMF in a series DC motor with large flywheel.

D+15+14 Eddy currents: Copper disk rotates over a spinning bar magnet.

D+15+16 Damped pendulum: Swinging metal disks damped in magnetic field.

D+15+18 Faraday's disk: Copper disk in Hg rotates in magnetic field.

D+15+20 Jumping rings: High current AC coil causes rings to jump.

D+15+22 Skin effect: Metal sheet shielding varies with frequency.

D+15+24 Levitator: Aluminum dish floats four inches off platform.

D+15+26 Eddy currents:Small magnet slowly drops between aluminum rails.

D+15+28 Eddy currents: Neodymium Magnet Drop.

Applet:

Generator: A rectangular loop rotates in a magnetic field, with or without commutator. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/generator_e.htm

Inductance

D+20+0 Energy stored in large coil with soft iron core flashes bulb.

D+20+02 LR time constant: Square wave drives series LR on oscilloscope.

D+20+04 AC dimmer: Soft iron core in coil dims lamps.

LCR Phase Relationships

D+25+0 Phases of V and I in series circuit as RL shifts to RC.

Magnetic Fields

D+30+0 Suspended magnetic lodestone on string.

D+30+01 Large compass needle on stand.

D+30+02 Dip needle compass.

D+30+04 Earth model with internal magnet and pivoting probe magnet.

D+30+06 Iron filings and permanent magnets to show field on an OHP.

D+30+08 Compass needle shows field around a high current wire on bench top.

D+30+10 Iron filings around a high current vertical wire on OHP to show field.

D+30+12 Iron filings around a current carrying coil on OHP to show field.

D+30+14 Magnetic field around a solenoid with pivoting probe magnet.

D+30+16 Ampere's law: Currents in parallel wires attract or repel.

D+30+18 Force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field.

D+30+20 Elementary motor: Bar on rails over solenoid with core.

D+30+22 Torque on coil suspended between two magnets.

D+30+24 Vacuum tube with screen shows cathode rays bent with a magnet.

D+30+25 Elementary motor: De La Rive Tube.

D+30+26 E/M tube: Circular bending of an electron beam in a magnetic field.

D+30+28 Hall effect: Magnetic field induces a voltage in a neon plasma.

Applet:

Magnetic field diagram for two moving point charges: http://web.mit.edu/jbelcher/www/java/part_biot/part_biot.html

Magnetic Properties

D+35+0 Wobbly bar: Magnets in frame balanced by repulsive forces.

D+35+2 Making a magnet by electromagnetic induction.

D+35+4 Making small magnets by breaking up a larger magnet.

D+35+6 Barkhausen effect: Magnet and coil with soft iron core.

D+35+7 Barkhausen effect model: Many tiny magnets on pivots on OHP.

D+35+9 Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with OHP.

                Frogs are diamagnetic too!

D+35+10 Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with arc lamp.

D+35+12 Linear motor: An iron core jumps into a solenoid.

D+35+14 YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.

Meters

D+40+0 Tangent galvanometer: Compass needle pivots in a coil.

D+40+2 Elementary galvanometer: Coil on spring in magnetic field.

D+40+4 Mavometer: Ammeter/voltmeter/galvanometer.

D+40+6 Various meters for display.

D+40+8 Ammeter shunt: Only a small current flows to the meter.

Motors

D+45+0 Rolling bar motor: Same as D+30+20.

D+45+2 Elementary split-ring armature DC motor. D+15+6 as a motor.

D+45+4 AC induction motor: Armature in a whirling field.

D+45+6 Elementary motor: Electron beam revolves in magnetic field.

Applet:

DC Electrical Motor: http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/electricmotor.htm

Oscilloscopes

D+50+0 The Braun tube with magnetic and electrostatic deflection.

Resistance

D+55+0 Resistance boards: Series, parallel, Wheatstone bridge.

D+55+2 Watt's law: Variable resistor, glow coil, volt and amp meter.

D+55+4 High current melts the fuse wire.

D+55+6 Resistance thermometer: Iron coil in liquid Nitrogen and flame varies current.

D+55+8 Effect of temperature on current in carbon or tungsten filaments.

D+55+10 Large tungsten filament lamp; as it heats, current drops.

D+55+12 Oscillator with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.

D+55+13 Same as D+55+12 using speaker for audio tone generation.

D+55+14 Same as D+55+12 using oscilloscope to display waveform.

D+55+16 Film: "Elementary electricity", sound; 8 min.

D+55+18 Resistor analog: Marbles cascading down pin board.

Applets:

Ohm Zone: Build your own circuits. http://www.article19.com/shockwave/oz.htm

Kirchoff's Rules: Observe how the voltages across and currents through the resistors in a circuit change as the resistors or battery emfs change. http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/java/kirch4/index.html

Solid State and Semiconductors

D+60+0 P-N Junction as a rectifier: Current flows one way.

D+60+2 P-N Junction as a rectifier: Diode bridge rectifies AC voltage.

D+60+4 Photoelectric effect: Light on P-N junction causes current flow.

D+60+6 Several commercial solar cells.

D+60+8 Commercial solar cell spins propeller using small arc lamp.

D+60+10 Impact on peizo-electric device flashes neon bulb.

Applets:

Carrier concentration vs Fermi level and density of states: http://jas.eng.buffalo.edu/education/semicon/fermi/levelAndDOS/index.html

Fermi level, Fermi function and electron occupancy of localized energy states: http://jas.eng.buffalo.edu/education/semicon/fermi/functionAndStates/functionAndStates.html

Thermionic Emission

D+65+0 Edison effect: Electrons are cast off from hot filament.

Thermoelectricity

D+70+0 Thermocouple and thermopile, both make electricity from heat.

D+70+2 Thermocouple magnet: Flame with water cooling holds weight.

D+70+4 Thermocouple magnet: Flame with ice bath, holds weight.

D+70+6 Thermoelectric fan: Fan runs off of hot and cold water.

D+70+8 Peltier junction: Forward current freezes water drop, reverse boils.

Transformers

D+75+0 Demountable transformer with many secondary coils from 10:1 to 1:46.

D+75+1 Same as above: Secondary used for spot-welding.

D+75+2 Same as above: Secondary used for induction melting.

D+75+3 Same as above: Secondary used for small Jacob's ladder.

D+75+4 Large Tesla coil. 15 inch discharge.

D+75+6 Automobile coil makes a spark.

D+75+8 Large Jacob's ladder.

Voltaic Cells

D+80+0 Copper nail and iron nail in a lemon using a multimeter.

D+80+4 Gotham cell: Assorted metal electrodes in sulfuric acid bath.

D+80+6 Storage cell: Gotham cell is charged up and rings a bell.

Electrolysis

D+85+0 Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen.

D+85+2 Bubble Electrolysis.

Book E: Optics

Color Perception

E+5+0 Standard color blindness tests and box of colored yarns.

E+5+5 Red, green, blue light on three-sided rotatable pyramid.

E+5+10 Newton's color disk: When rotated,appears white.

E+5+15 Three-color projector for additive color mixing with arc lamp.

E+5+20 Arc light spectrum recombined with concave mirror on lucite rod.

E+5+25 Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters mix subtractively on OHP.

E+5+30 Arc light spectrum with various filters.

E+5+35 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.

E+5+40 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.

E+5+45 Two slides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.

Applets:

Rotating pink dots create the illusion of a green dot. http://www.dougmoran.com/collections/optical-illusion-pink-dot-circle.html

Addition of the primary colors (red, green and blue): http://www.cbu.edu/~jvarrian/applets/color1/colors_g.htm

Observe how mixing of light (addition) differs from mixing of pigments (subtraction). http://www.hal-pc.org/~clement/Simulations/Mixing%20Colors/rgbColor.html

Diffraction

E+10+0 Single slit diffraction using laser beam through adjustable slit.

E+10+5 Laser beam through sets of 1, 2, or multiple electro-formed slits.

E+10+10 Airy's disk: Pinhole diffraction using laser beam.

E+10+15 Diffraction about pinhead, razorblade, wood screw using laser.

E+10+20 Microwave diffraction by a large adjustable iris.

E+10+25 Microwave zone plates.

E+10+30 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.

E+10+45 Limit of resolution: Two small lamps on adjustable slide.

E+10+50 Poisson's spot: Interference pattern within circular shadow.

Applet:

Single slit diffraction: Observe the diffraction pattern created by light passing through a slit of variable width. You can also change the wavelength of the light. http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/java/slitdiffr/index.html

Gratings and Spectra

E+15+0 First and second order transmission gratings, with arc lamp.

E+15+1 Reflection grating with arc lamp.

E+15+5 Arc lamp spectra from NaCl, CaCl2, SrCl soaked rods.

E+15+10 Mercury spectrum using slit and grating, includes UV lines.

E+15+12 Wall chart of mercury spectrum.

E+15+13 Applet; transmission and absorption spectra of all the elements

E+15+15 Absorption spectrum of Na using arc lamp, slit and grating.

E+15+20 Diffraction patterns of various gratings using He-Ne laser.

E+15+25 Hand-held gratings for class to view Hg, Ne discharge tubes.

Applet:

Observe the intensity profile for a diffraction grating with variable number of slits, slit spacing, slit width, and wavelength. http://physics.uwstout.edu/physapplets/Northwesten/www.physics.nwu.edu/vpl/optics/diffraction.html

Holography

E+20+0 Films: "Laser light", U of Utah, sound, 38 min.; "Introduction to Holography", Ext. media center,sound, 17 min.; "Introduction to Lasers", Ext. media center, sound, 17 min.

E+20+5 Transmission hologram viewed with laser light.

E+20+6 Reflection hologram viewed with white light.

Interference

E+25+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.

E+25+5 Ripple tank with plane or spherical water waves and barriers.

E+25+10 Microwave interference with single and double slits.

E+25+15 Laser beam through various slit and grating combinations.

E+25+20 Red/green/blue line source viewed with double slit paddles.

E+25+25 Thin film interference with optical flats and sodium lamp.

E+25+30 Newton's rings by transmission or reflection on arc bench.

E+25+35 Same as E+25+30, using Hall's prism.

E+25+40 Soap film interference: The soap bubble experiment on arc bench.

E+25+42 Oil film interference on water.

E+25+45 Thin film interference with mercury light on mica sheets.

E+25+50 Laser projected through Fabry-Perot interferometer shows pattern.

E+25+55 Lloyd's mirror: Laser beam interferes with reflection from glass.

E+25+60 Michelson interferometer fringes with laser or white light.

E+25+65 Microwave interference by multiple reflection.

Applet:

Two-slit interference, with variable wavelength and slit separation. Also includes intensity profile. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/doubleslit.htm

An illustration of the intensity profile for two-slit interference, including the diffraction envelope. Allows variable slit separation, slit width and wavelength. http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap27/Gary-TwoSlit/app.htm

Lenses

E+30+5 Air, glass and water lenses in water tank with arc lamp.

E+30+10 Blackboard optics: Light sources with lucite lenses.

E+30+15 Real images: Lighted arrow image and various lenses.

E+30+20 Cylindrical lens of lucite with words "DIOXIDE GLASS".

E+30+25 Fresnel lenses to show.

E+30+30 Large lens shows chromatic aberration on screen using arc lamp.

E+30+35 Pincushion and barrel distortion of lenses using arc lamp.

E+30+40 Cylindrical aberration: Wooden model.

E+30+45 Astronomical telescope: Using objective and eyepiece lenses.

E+30+50 Galilean telescope: similar to E+30+45.

E+30+55 Compound microscope is assembled from lenses.

E+30+60 Lantern slide projector with removable housing.

E+30+65 Model of the eye, with near/far sight lenses, using arc lamp.

Applets:

Lenses and mirrors: Observe the image created by a converging/diverging lens or mirror. You can change the object position, object height, and focal length. http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~teb/java/ntnujava/Lens/lens_e.html

Image Formation by a Converging Lens: As you change the object position, you can observe the real or virtual image change position. Shows a large number of rays. http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/java/clens/index.html

Observe the effect of a single converging lens or two such lenses on the rays from an object. The position and focal length of each lens can be varied. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/optics/html/lenses.htm

Image Formation by a Diverging Lens: As you change the object position, you can observe the virtual image change position. Shows a large number of rays. http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/java/dlens/index.html

Build a system of lenses and/or mirrors. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/physlets/1.1/elenses_and_mirrors.htm

Optics of the eye: Observe how a normal, nearsighted or farsighted person's eye affects incoming rays. You can change object position and focal length of the eye system, and add eyeglasses of variable focal length. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/optics/html/eye.htm

Metallic Color

E+35+0 Color by reflected and transmitted light, using gold leaf.

Mirrors

E+40+0 Arc lamp and mirror on large disk rotate showing beam angles.

E+40+5 Blackboard optics: Light sources with plane and curved mirrors.

E+40+10 Phantom lightbulb: Image in a plane mirror.

E+40+15 Hand held plane mirror and right angle mirror.

E+40+20 Variable angle mirror assembly with candle.

E+40+21 Barbershop mirrors:Parallel mirrors with light bulb.

E+40+25 Retrodirective reflector: Silvered right angle prism, using laser.

E+40+30 Reflections from concave and convex mirrors with lighted arrow.

E+40+35 Phantom bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.

E+40+40 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.

E+40+41 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench. (same as C+65+0)

E+40+42Light the Match (same as C+65+2).

Applets:

Lenses and mirrors: Observe the image created by a converging/diverging lens or mirror. Can change the object position, object height, and focal length. http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~teb/java/ntnujava/Lens/lens_e.html

Converging mirror: Observe the image created by a concave mirror. Can change the mirror position and focal length. Shows a large number of rays. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/optics/html/mirrors.htm

Diverging mirror: Observe the image created by a convex mirror. Can change the object position. Shows a large number of rays. http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/java/dmirr/index.html

Build a system of lenses and/or mirrors. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/physlets/1.1/elenses_and_mirrors.htm

Polarization and Birefringence

E+45+0 Two picket fence sections with slats and rope to make waves.

E+45+5 Microwaves with grid. Transmitter and receiver are polarized.

E+45+10 Malus experiment: Polarization by reflection off glass surface.

E+45+15 Polarization of light by internal reflection: Fresnel rhomb.

E+45+20 Polarization of light through a pile of glass plates, using arc lamp.

E+45+25 Commercial Polaroid filters on an OHP.

E+45+30 Plaster models of positive and biaxial crystals.

E+45+35 Two tourmaline crystals act as polaroids, using arc lamp.

E+45+40 Light through polaroid and calcite, using arc lamp.

E+45+45 Model of a calcite crystal.

E+45+50 Light through Nicol prism and Nicol analyzer, using arc lamp.

E+45+55 Quartz prisms give a single and double spectrum, using arc lamp.

E+45+60 Polarized light and stressed lucite on an OHP.

E+45+65 Optical rotation of polarized light by sugar solution, using arc lamp.

E+45+70 Optical rotation by sugar solution produces barber pole, using arc lamp.

E+45+75 Mechanical model to show circular polarization; hand-cranked.

E+45+80 Circular polarization with quarter wave plate, using arc lamp.

E+45+85 Circular polarization of microwaves by elliptical metal tube.

E+45+90 Circular polarization of microwaves: With reflector and grids.

E+45+95 Polarized light thru Karo syrup shows dark bands, using arc lamp.

E+45+100 10λ retarder plate makes dark bands in spectrum, using arc lamp.

E+45+105 Sunset: solution in tank scatters blue light, using arc lamp.

E+45+110 Visible nodes and antinodes in linearly birefringent plexiglass rod.

Prisms

E+50+0 Total internal reflection: 45º-45º-90º prism using arc lamp.

E+50+5 Four-prisms, same index of refraction, different angles, using laser.

E+50+10 Eight-prisms, different index of refraction, same angle, using laser.

E+50+15 Blackboard optics: Light source and lucite prism.

E+50+20 Refraction of white light by prism using arc lamp.

E+50+25 Light from arc lamp enters direct view prism emerges as spectrum.

E+50+30 Dove prism to erect projected images using arc lamp.

E+50+35 Binoculars and Porro prisms to show.

Propagation of Light

E+55+0 Inverse square law: Light bulb in wire frame.

E+55+5 He-Ne laser compared to non-coherent red light bulb.

E+55+10 Image formed by a pinhole using three light bulbs in a box.

Refraction and Reflection

E+60+0 Displacement of a beam passing through a thick plate of glass.

E+60+2 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.

E+60+5 Total internal reflection/critical angle: Nakamura water tank.

E+60+10 Rainbow: Refraction of white light by a liquid sphere.

E+60+15 Light pipes and fiber optic flashlight.

E+60+17 Water fiber optic

E+60+20 Flexible light pipe using arc lamp.

E+60+25 Fiber optic cable transmits picture from slide to video monitor.

E+60+30 Microwave analogy of the light pipe using flexible metal tubing.

E+60+35 Reflection of microwaves off an aluminum plate.

E+60+40 Variable index of refraction: laser beam bends in water tank with sugar.

Applets:

Reflection and Refraction: Observe how a wavefront creates reflected and refracted wavefronts as it encounters an interface between two media. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/ntnujava/propagation/ereflection_and_refraction.htm

Physics of the Rainbow: A highly detailed examination of the effect of a water droplet on different colors of light. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t=61

Another illustration of the rainbow, showing the effect of a water droplet on white light. http://physics.uwstout.edu/physapplets/wave/rainbo_z.htm

Fermat's principle: See how the path taken by a light beam is the path that minimizes the travel time. http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/ntnujava/Fermat/efermat.htm

Spectral Energy

E+65+0 IR source illuminates audience viewed with CCD TV camera in dark room.

E+65+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight or IR source.

E+65+10 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp.

E+65+12 FLIR T200 Infrared camera

E+65+15 Concave mirrors and horn thermopile senses candle across room.

E+65+20 Measurement of light intensity: Footcandle meter.

E+65+25 As light bulb filament increases temp. its spectrum shifts red to blue.

E+65+30 UV light causes mineral and fabric samples to fluoresce different colors.

Book F: Modern and Contemporary Physics

Quantum Physics Online: Click here for various applets dealing with topics in quantum mechanics. http://www.quantum-physics.polytechnique.fr/

Cathode and Canal Rays

F+0+0 Vacuum tube with screen show cathode rays bent with a magnet.

F+0+5 Vacuum tube with metal cross makes shadow with cathode rays.

F+0+10 Vacuum tube with paddlewheel spins from cathode ray impact.

F+0+15 Braun tube (CRT) with magnetic and electrostatic deflection.

Video of the above mentioned crooke's tubes

X-Rays

F+5+0 X-Ray tube: Hard X-rays detected by fluorescent screen.

F+5+5 X-rays ionize electrode and discharge electroscope.

F+5+10 X-ray beam through cloud chamber shown on TV camera

F+5+15 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.

Electron Diffraction

F+10+0 Electron diffraction by aluminum and graphite on CRT.

F+10+5 Film: "Matter Waves", sound, 28 min.

Photoelectric Effect

F+15+0 UV light hits charged zinc plate and discharges electroscope.

F+15+5 Light through different filters into phototube changes current.

F+15+10 Phototube circuit allows current flow in one direction only.

F+15+15 EMF generated by phototube using halogen light source.

F+15+20 Commercial solar cell spins propeller using halogen light source.

F+15+25 Light hits diode,causes current flow. Uses arc lamp.

F+15+30 NPN junction as a phototransistor amplifier.

F+15+35 Recording modulates laser beam which hits solar cell and amplifier.

F+15+40 Film loop: "Photoelectric effect", 4:02 min.

Photons

F+18+0 Film: "Photons", sound, 19 min..

F+18+5 Film: "Interference of photons", sound 13 min.

F+18+10 Photomultiplier tubes to show.

F+18+15 Photomultipler tube on scope shows photons with TV camera.

Atomic Structure

F+20+0 "Plum pudding": Corks with magnets float in bowl/solenoid on OHP.

F+20+5 Rutherford scattering model: Steel balls, launcher, and "hill".

F+20+10 Model of the nucleus: Steel balls in plastic dish on OHP.

F+20+15 Film: "Rutherford atom", sound, 40 min.

F+20+20 Mechanical models of the hydrogen atom.

F+20+25 Bohr-Stoner charts(5): Electron configurations of the elements.

F+20+30 Wall chart or online applet of periodic table.

F+20+35 Wall chart or online applet of the nuclides.

Applets:

Thomson model of the atom: http://physics.uwstout.edu/physapplets/virginia/www.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109n/more_stuff/applets/rutherford/rutherford2.html

Rutherford model of the atom: http://physics.uwstout.edu/physapplets/virginia/www.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109n/more_stuff/applets/rutherford/rutherford.html

Bohr model of the atom: http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/bohrh.htm

See the order in which atomic shells are filled with electrons: http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/period/electron.htm


Scattering

F+25+10Java applets: Quantum Properties


Quantum Mechanical Barrier Penetration

F+30+0 Tunneling:Microwave analogy using wax prisms.

Applet:

An illustration of a wave packet encountering a potential energy barrier. http://www.neti.no/java/sgi_java/WaveSim.html

Elementary Particles

F+35+0 Fundamental particle and interaction chart.(LBL)

Cloud Chambers

F+45+0 Cloud chamber with cold water and alcohol shown on TV camera

F+45+10 Cloud chamber with dry ice and alcohol shown on TV camera.

F+45+15 Cloud chamber shows X-rays: Same as F+5+10.

Franck-Hertz Experiment

F+55+0 Film: "Franck-Hertz experiment", sound, 30 min.


Special Relativity

F+60+0Applet: various simulated experiments

Applet:

Clocks and the Postulates of Special Relativity: http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/ntnujava/relativity/epostulates_clocks.htm

Radioactivity

F+65+0 Scintillation counter using Geiger tube.

F+65+05 Geiger counter.

F+65+10 Mechanical model of radioactive decay.

F+65+15 Wall chart of the nuclides.

F+65+20 Film loop: "Radioactivity", 4:00 min.

F+65+25 Film loop: "Radioactive decay", 4:55 min.

Applet:

An illustration of the law of radioactive decay: http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/applist/decay/decay.htm

Accelerators

F+70+0 Large mechanical model of the cyclotron.

Applet:

How a cyclotron works. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t=50

Fission and Fusion

F+80+0 Mousetrap chain reaction experiment.

F+80+05 Model of the uranium pile.

Superconductivity

F+85+0 YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.

Zeeman Effect

F+90+0 Magnetic field splits Cd interferometer lines on TV camera.

Laser

F+95+0 Working helium-neon laser in transparent housing.

Applet:

Operation of a laser: http://physics.uwstout.edu/physapplets/javapm/java/laser/index.html

Fuel Cells

F+100+0 Fuel cell car runs off hydrogen and oxygen.

Book G: Astronomy and Perception

Astronomy Slides

G+0+0 35mm slides for astronomy.

Astronomy Models

G+05+0 Vault of the heavens: Large lucite globe.

G+05+05 Earth, Sun, and Mars model.

G+05+10 Solar system model.

Audio Illusions

G+50+05 Shepard Tones: repeating tones appear to continuously ascend or descend

Optical Illusions

G+55+0 Revolving window illusion.

G+55+05 Rotating disk and strobe demonstration.

G+55+10 Optical illusion posters.

G+55+15 Phantom Bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.

G+55+20 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.

G+55+25 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.

Perception

G+60+05 Pulfrich Effect: Pendulum and polaroid experiment.

G+60+10 Limit of resolution: Two movable pin-points of light.

G+60+15 Limit of audibility: Set of rods that ring at different frequencies.

G+60+20 Set of color blindness cards.

G+60+25 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.

G+60+30 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.

G+60+35 Two sides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.

G+60+40 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp on TV camera.

Applets:

Rotating pink dots create the illusion of a green dot: http://www.patmedia.net/marklevinson/cool/cool_illusion.html

Addition of the primary colors (red, green and blue): http://www.cbu.edu/~jvarrian/applets/color1/colors_g.htm

Observe how mixing of light (addition) differs from mixing of pigments (subtraction). http://www.hal-pc.org/~clement/Simulations/Mixing%20Colors/rgbColor.html

General Physics Applets

Links to many specific applets are also scattered throughout this Lecture Demonstration index.

PhET, a collection of interactive physics simulations from the Physics Education Technology project at the University of Colorado: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet/web-pages/index.html

UCLA's ePhysics (there are many links to specific ePhysics applets in our Lecture Demonstration index): http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu

Hyperphysics, a collection of tutorials hosted by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hph.html

General Physics Java Applets, by B. Surendranath Reddy: http://surendranath.tripod.com/Applets.html

MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~walkup/demonstrations/WebAssignments/index.html

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