Index to Physics Notebooks
skip ahead to:
Book B - Waves Book E - Optics
Book C - Heat and Matter Book F - Modern Physics
Book D - Electricity and Magnetism Book G - Astronomy and Perception

Back to Physics Demonstrations' Home Page

Book A: Mechanics


A+0+0 "Coin and Feather" fall in an evacuated rotatable tube.

A+0+5 Timed free fall: Ball drops 2 meters through electronic timing gate.

A+0+10 Atwood machine: Unbalanced weights on a pulley accelerate slowly.

A+0+15 A falling weight accelerates a car horizontally.

A+0+20 Acceleration of a steel ball down an inclined plane with metronome.

A+0+22 Inclined airtrack with gliders and timing gates.

A+0+23 Inclined airtrack: Cart and ball accelerate in unison.

A+0+25 Cork float accelerometer: Cork and water in sealed flask.

A+0+30 A chain dropped onto a force plate.

A+0+35 A ball swung on a string held by a sleeve.

A+0+40 Conical pendulum: Similar to A+0+35 with standard weights.

A+0+45 Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.

A+0+47 Swing water in a bucket.

A+0+50 Candles rotating about an axis.

A+0+55 Mercury and colored water in a rotating glass vessel.

A+0+56 Flattening of the earth: Rotating brass hoops.

A+0+57 Rotating loop of chain rolls across bench.

A+0+58 Mechanical governor device.

A+0+59 Chain lariat with hand drill or electric rotator.

A+0+60 Film: "Zero G", sound, 14 min.

A+0+65 Film: "Conservation laws in zero G", sound, 14 min.

A+0+70 Film loop: "Inertial forces: Centripetal acceleration", 3:15 min.

A+0+75 Film loop: "Inertial forces:Translational acceleration", 2:05 min.

A+0+80 Java Applet: The Ramp

Conservation of Energy

A+5+0 Ball on string mounts on blackboard and pivots on lower rod.

A+5+10 Equal path lengths ball race.

A+5+15 Brachistochrone: Three balls falling along different trajectories.

A+5+20 Bowling ball pendulum swings back to nose.

A+5+25 Film loop: "Conservation of energy: Pole vault", 3:55 min.

A+5+30 Cart and ball down inclined track.

Frames of Reference

A+10+0 Film: "Frames of reference", sound, 28 min.

A+10+40 Film loop: "Galilean relativity I", ball dropped from mast of ship,2:55min.

A+10+45 Film loop:"Galilean relativity II", object dropped from aircraft, 3:40 min.

A+10+50 Film loop: "Galilean relativity III", projectile fired vertically, 3:00 min.

A+10+55 Film loop: "A matter of relative motion", 3:40 min.


A+12+0 Blocks, with various surfaces slide on an inclined plane.

A+12+1 Film: "A million to one", flea and dry ice puck, sound, 5 min.

A+12+5 Weighted wood block dragged horizontally by force sensor.

A+12+10 Plank oscillates on oppositely rotating bicycle wheels.


A+14+0 Weight on a vertical spring with markers on stand.

A+14+1 Block pulled horizontally by a spring.

A+14+5 Force table: Forces on a car on a horizontal table.

A+14+10 Force table: Forces on a car on an adjustable inclined plane.

A+14+15 Precision lever: Balance beam on stand plus weight set.

A+14+16 A meterstick lever on a free-standing fulcrum with weights.

A+14+17 Standard pan balance with assorted weights.


A+15+0 The Cavendish experiment: Model and actual apparatus to show.

A+15+1 Film loop: "The Cavendish experiment", 4:25 min.

A+15+10Java Applet Orbiting Bodies

A+15+30 Film: "The law of gravitation "(Feynman), sound, 56 min.


Kepler's Second Law is illustrated by applying it to the individual planets and Halley's comet.

Linear Inertia

A+20+0 Card snapped from under a weight by a leaf spring.

A+20+5 Tablecloth yanked out from under dishes.

A+20+10 Breaking thread above and below weight.

A+20+20 Bed of nails

Rotational Inertia

A+25+0 Two disks, one weighted in center and other on rim, roll down ramp.

A+25+5 Moment of inertia: Hoop or disk rotated by falling weight.

A+25+10 Loop the loop: Sphere, hoop, disk rolled down a looped track.

Angular Momentum

A+30+0 Minor's apparatus: Movable discs rotated by falling weight.

A+30+5 Maxwell's wheel: Flywheel with axle, supported on strings or stand.

A+30+10 Rotational inertia device: Sliding weights on rotating rod.

A+30+15 Rotating chair with dumbbells or weighted bicycle wheel.

A+30+20 Maxwell's top, has adjustable center of gravity.

A+30+25 Large conical aluminum top.

A+30+30 Gyroscopes; various.

A+30+35 Sire's Polytrope.

A+30+40 Film: "Conservation laws in zero G", sound, 14 min..

A+30+45 Large gyroscope in a suitcase.

Linear Momentum

A+35+0 Balls of equal and unequal mass on strings, separated by a leaf spring.

A+35+2Two people in rolling chairs pushing and pulling

A+35+5 Elastic collisions: Seven steel balls roll on a wooden track.

A+35+10 Elastic collisions: Five hanging balls and two unequal hanging balls.

A+35+12 Elastic collisions: Double and Multiple Ball Drop.

A+35+16 .22 rifle fires vertically, bullet lifts small wood cylinder.

A+35+17 Ballistic pendulum: Suspended .22 rifle fires into suspended block.

A+35+18 Inelastic collisions: Another ballistic pendulum.

A+35+20 Three meter airtrack with gliders that rebound elastically, or stick.

A+35+25 Plastic pucks on air table.

A+35+28 Executive size pool table

A+35+30 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.

A+35+35 Airtrack: Long track with two gliders coupled by a spring hoop.

A+35+40 Train on circular track moves one way and track moves the other.

A+35+45 Film loop: "Colliding freight cars", 2:45 min.

A+35+50 Film loop: "Dynamics of a billiard ball", 4:00 min.

Motion in One Dimension

A+37+5 Airtrack: Glider passes "start" and "stop" gates on digital timer.

A+37+10 Electric winch tows car at constant speed.

A+37+11 Electric winch tows car at constant speed, then constant acceleration.

Physical Measurements

A+45+0 3"x 4" slides of standards and units and cassette tape of WWV.

A+45+10 Film: "Powers of ten", sound, 10 min.

A+45+15 Solids to show; cone, pyramid, icosahedron, etc.

A+45+20 Wall chart of metric system.


A+50+0 Dropped and shot balls hit bench simultaneously.

A+50+5 Water projector: Adjustable angle water jet in front of grid.

A+50+10 Monkey and the hunter.

A+50+15 Reaction jet: "L" tube rotates as water flows through it.

A+50+20 Rocket is filled with water and compressed air and launched vertically.

A+50+25 Carbon dioxide propelled rocket flies across room on wire.

A+50+26 Carbon dioxide propelled rotational device.

A+50+35 Ballistics car: Ball ejected from rolling car drops back in.


Newton's cannon: View projectile motion with the earth's curvature taken into account.

Rotational Dynamics

A+55+0 "Sweet Spot": Meterstick pivot point changes with point struck.

A+55+05 Rolling spool: String on spool is pulled at various angles.

A+55+10 Cycloid disk draws path on chalkboard.


An illustration showing the velocity and acceleration vectors in rolling without slipping:

Statics and Mechanical Equilibrium

A+60+0 Meterstick suspended in mid-air by horizontal strings and weights.

A+60+5 Force on hinged beam measured with transducer.

A+60+10 Forces on crane boom measured with transducer.

A+60+15 Two transducers measure forces from centered hanging mass.

A+60+16 Same as A+60+15, but mass in different position.

A+60+20 Car hangs balanced by forces in mid-air over removable inclined plane.

A+60+25 Disk (weighted off-center) rolls up inclined plane.

A+60+30 Irregular shapes to determine center of mass using plumb bob.

A+60+32 Center of gravity (toy) objects.

A+60+35 Static equilibrium for a rope on a spool. Same as A+55+5.

A+60+37 Rotation about the center of mass: Object to throw.

A+60+40 Anatomical models: Skull, Arm, Leg


A+65+0 Twisting a rod with one end fixed and the other hung with weights.

A+65+10 Torque wrench to demonstrate.


A+70+0 X,Y,Z-coordinate system with vector arrows.

A+70+5 Vector arrows of various sizes and colors fit in wooden bases.

A+70+10 Relative velocity: Three electric cars on tracks make chalk line.

A+70+20 Rope with slug(unit of mass) in center is lifted from ends.

A+70+25 Film loop: "Vector addition: Velocity of a boat", 3:35 min.


Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors, and see the effect this has on their vector cross product.

Mechanical Advantage

A+80+10 Pulley sets.

A+80+20 Chain hoist.

A+80+30 Block and tackle.

A+80+40 Block and tackle: Bosun's chair.

Book B: Waves

Acoustics and Vibrations Animations: Click here for various applets dealing with sound, vibrations and other wave phenomena.

Chaotic Oscillations

B+5+0 Chaotic pendulum.


Produce a Poincare section for a driven pendulum. The initial conditions can be controlled.

Simple Harmonic Motion

B+10+0 Mass on a spring.

B+10+1 Simple pendulum: Ball on a string.

B+10+2 Torsion pendulum with removable weights.

B+10+3 Compound pendulum: Meterstick with movable brass weight.

B+10+5 Large torsion pendulum with different diameter rods.

B+10+10 Physical pendulum: Steel bar with two pivot points.

B+10+15 Ball rolling in a spherical dish on OHP.

B+10+20 Large damped oscillator (mass on spring) with various damping disks.

B+10+25 Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.

B+10+30 Damped oscillations: Flat steel spring with removable weights.

B+10+35 Lissajous figures with laser and two signal generators.

B+10+40 Transparencies: Lissajous figures for OHP.

B+10+45Java Applet: Simple Harmonic Motion & Uniform Circular Motion

B+10+50 Ball on turntable rotates beneath synchronized pendulum .

B+10+55Java Applet: A-vector and V-vector arrows

B+10+60 Tuning forks, various.

B+10+65 Pocket watch with mirror and laser twitches with balance wheel motion.

B+10+70 Four pendulums on rod: Same mass, different lengths.

B+10+72 Four pendulums on rod: Same length, different masses.

B+10+75 Inverted pendulum.


Create a Lissajous figure. The frequencies of both the x and y oscillations may be varied.

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

B+15+0 Two large pendulums coupled with spring.

B+15+1 Three large pendulums coupled with two springs.

B+15+5 Wilberforce pendulum: Oscillates between rotation and up-down.

B+15+10 Two pendulums on a frame of flexible steel.

B+15+15 Two balls hung on the same string, one in middle, one at the end.

Forced Oscillations/Resonance

B+20+0 Driven harmonic oscillator: Motor driven mass on spring.

B+20+5 Clock spring oscillator: Electrically driven and damped.

B+20+10 Damped oscillations in a resonant LCR circuit on an oscilloscope.

B+20+15 One tuning fork with tuned cavity, drives another.

B+20+20 Film : "Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse",silent, 4 min.

B+20+25 Set of three coupled inverted pendulums on wood base.

B+20+30 Beaker is broken by sound from speaker.

B+20+35 Driven oscillations in a multiple spring-mass system.

Travelling Waves

B+25+0 Transverse wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+1 Transverse 3-dimensional wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+5 Longitudinal wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+10 Rubber rope stretched across front of room.

B+25+15 Brass spring on white plastic sheet.

B+25+20 Suspended slinky on threads for compression wave.

B+25+25 Mechanical water wave model, hand-cranked.

B+25+30 Torsional wave device, large or small.


View patterns of oscillating air molecules in a tube caused by a traveling or standing wave.

Observe a wave pulse as it reflects off a fixed or a free end.

Superposition : Fourier Principles/Complex Waves

B+30+0 Fourier synthesis.

B+30+1 Transparencies: Fourier superpositions.

B+30+5 Fourier decomposition: microphone and oscilloscope.


Build a waveform by combining a variety of different frequencies. The simulation also allows the user to hear what the waveform sounds like.

Observe how the superposition of waves with different frequencies leads to different forms of dispersion.


B+35+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.

B+35+5 Acoustic interference with Quincke (trombone) tube and sonalert.

B+35+10 Interference of sound waves from two speakers, same generator.

B+35+12 Interference between two ultrasound sources (40 kHz).

B+35+15 Interference in a ripple tank uses arc lamp or incandescent light.

B+35+20 Beats with tuning forks on tuned cavities.

B+35+25 Beats with two beer bottles blown manually.

B+35+30 Beats from two speakers observed on an oscilloscope.


View the interference pattern created by multiple sources. The locations of the sources can be varied.

Beats: View the superposition of two traveling waves with slightly different frequencies. The frequencies can be adjusted.

Another applet on beats: View the beat pattern produced by two waves with slightly different frequencies. The center frequency and beat frequency can be adjusted.

Sound Spectrum/Sources

B+45+0 Steel spring pendulum, inverted, vibrates at 10 Hz.

B+45+5 Giant tuning fork, barely audible, displayed with stroboscope.

B+45+10 Ultrasound transducers (40 kHz) as both sources and receivers.

B+45+15 Bell ringing in a jar evacuated with pump.

B+45+20 Savart's wheel: Toothed wheel and cardboard or air jet.

B+45+25 Siren: large, electric motor driven.

B+45+30 Compressed air jet blows through spinning disk with holes.

B+45+32 Twirling Tube

B+45+35 Sprockets on shaft rotate against a card to make sound.

B+45+40 Caruga horn: Varigated tube to blow through

B+45+42 Hoot Tube

B+45+45 Galton's whistle: Compressed air whistle.

B+45+50 Helmholtz resonators drive radiometer vanes, using tuning forks.

B+45+55 Casio electronic synthesizer with amp and speaker.

Standing Waves/Resonance

B+50+0 Three Java Applets: Superposition of waves

B+50+5 Model of longitudinal standing wave, hand-cranked.

B+50+10 Rope and strobe: Transverse standing waves, motor driven.

B+50+15 Reuben's tube: Standing sound waves in flames along a large pipe.

B+50+20 Set of eight organ pipes to make a major scale.

B+50+25 Tunable organ pipe.

B+50+30 Set of ten suspended metal rods struck with a wooden mallet.

B+50+35 Xylophone.

B+50+45 Unbalanced spinning wheel vibrates spring steel reeds.

B+50+50 Sonometer: Resonant chamber with bowed strings (2).

B+50+55 Torison wave model.


View patterns of oscillating air molecules in a tube caused by a traveling or standing wave.

View standing wave patterns in a pipe for different harmonic numbers.

See how the superposition of incident and reflected waves creates a standing wave.

Vibrational Modes

B+55+0 Film loop: "Vibrations of a metal plate", 3:45 min.

B+55+1 Film loop: "Vibrations of a drum", 3:25 min.

B+55+5 Chladni's disc: Bowed disk forms patterns in sprinkled salt.

B+55+10 Large glass bowl with ping pong balls and violin bow.

B+55+15 Young's modulus rod: Hammer and rod with nodes marked.

B+55+20 Longitudinal wave apparatus: Ball bounces off end of stroked rod.

B+55+25 Kundt's tube: Powder in tube shows standing waves.


Observe the vibrational modes for a rectangular membrane.

Observe the vibrational modes for a drum.

Speed of Sound

B+60+0 Speed of sound in air: Speaker resonates air column over water.

B+60+5 Measurement of speed of sound with microphone, speaker, oscilloscope.

Doppler Shift

B+65+0 Sonalert swung on the end of a string.

B+65+10 Film loop: "Doppler effect", 3:45 min.

Shock Waves

B+67+0 Whip

B+67+5 Film loop: "Formation of shock waves", 3:45 min.


An illustration of the Doppler effect for different speeds, including shock waves for supersonic motion.

An illustration of the Doppler effect involving a moving ambulance and a person standing nearby.

Music and the Ear

B+70+0 Ear models.

B+70+5 Film: "The Piano", sound, 27 min.

Book C: Properties of Heat and Matter

Weather and the Atmosphere

C+0+0 Humidity: Hygrometers to show.


C+5+0 Computer demo: Nesting can calorimeter, runs 3 min.

Carnot Cycle

C+10+0 Carnot cycle models: Piston/cylinder, PVT surface.

C+10+5 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.

C+10+10 Film loop: "Properties of a gas", 3:18 min.


C+15+0 Copper/wood cylinder wrapped with paper over bunsen burner.

C+15+1 Boiling water in paper cup; cup does not burn.

C+15+2 Copper gauze over flame; gas burns only above gauze.

C+15+3 Set of metal rods: Heat-sensitive paint changes color.

C+15+4 Computer demo: Conductivity (see C+15+3), runs 5 min.


C+20+0 Heat water in "O" shaped tube adding a dye.

C+20+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.

C+20+10 Cardboard strip drawn from glass tube extinguishes candle.

C+20+15 Hot air balloon: Dry cleaner bag over Bunsen burner rises to ceiling.

Engines and Pumps

C+22+0 Engine models: Steam, 4-cycle Otto.

C+22+05 Model of an air pump.

C+22+10 Operating Sterling cycle engine, gas powered.

C+22+15 Operating Sterling cycle engine, hot water powered.


Observe an engine undergoing an Otto cycle, along with its P-V diagram.

Fluid Dynamics

C+25+0 Flettnor rotorcar blown with fan.

C+25+02 Smoke Ring Generator

C+25+04 Airzooka

C+25+05 Bernoulli's principle: Ball suspended in air stream.

C+25+10 Glass standpipes: Water flows through tube, heights vary.

C+25+11 Glass standpipes with a constriction. Similar to C+25+10.

C+25+15 Glass aspirator: Compressed air draws colored water up glass tube.

C+25+16 Compressed air through funnel sucks in ball.

C+25+17 Compressed air attracts card with pin to holder.

C+25+20 Venturi meter: Manometer tubes on tapered wind tunnel tube.

C+25+25 Pitot tube inserted in wind stream with manometer indicator.

C+25+30 Two roof models, hinged, placed in wind stream.

C+25+35 Video camera shows fluid flow around various objects.

C+25+40 Water in vertical standpipe with holes at different heights.

C+25+45 Hydraulic ram water pump, working model.

C+25+50 A water vortex in two soda bottles joined vertically.

C+25+55 A vortex tube seperates compressed air into jets of hot and cold air.

Surface Tension and Capillary Action

C+27+0 Set of capillary tubes and dye on video camera.

C+27+05 Various bubble frames.

C+27+10 Soap boat or camphor boats in one meter square pan of water.

C+27+20 Wire sieve boat floats on water until alcohol is added.

Fluid Statics

C+30+0 Revolving "drumhead" with manometer shows pressure in water tank.

C+30+05 Magdeburg's hemispheres(cast iron) evacuated, can't be separated.

C+30+10 Hydraulic jack with pressure gauge, breaks 2"x 2" piece of wood.

C+30+15 Archimedes' principle: Cup and plug on balance beam.

C+30+17 Archimedes' principle: weighing beakers in water.

C+30+20 Archimedes' principle: Fish submerged in water on balance beam.

C+30+25 Archimedes' principle: Aluminum and brass cylinders.

C+30+30 Film loop: "Archimedes' principle", 3:40 min.

C+30+35 Cartesian divers: Pressure on cap sends divers sinking.

C+30+40 Torricelli Barometer: Column of mercury in bell jar.

C+30+45 Large model of aneroid barometer.

C+30+50 Pascal's vases: Water in removable vases with pressure gauge.

C+30+52 Interconnected set of glass vases of different shapes.

C+30+53 Interconnected tube with immiscible liquids.

C+30+55 Working model of the lung: Balloons in a bell jar over a diaphragm.

C+30+60 Suction cup holds large mass suspended from heavy glass plate.

C+30+65 Collapse 1 gallon metal can with vacuum pump.

C+30+68 Vacuum Cannon

C+30+70 The weight of air.

C+30+75 Vacuum hoist, working model.

C+30+80 Inversion table and blood pressure monitor

Heat and Work

C+35+0 Mechanical equivalent of heat: Aluminum cylinder, crank, rope with 5 kg weight and large LED display.

Heat Capacity

C+40+0 Ball race: Five different balls heated and placed on paraffin sheet.

Heat of Fusion

C+45+0 Computer demo: Heat of fusion of tin.

Irreversibility and Fluctuations

C+50+0 Java Applet: Gas mixing simulation

C+50+05 Black balls and white balls in a box are shaken.

C+50+10 Film loop: "Reversibility of time", 3:40 min.

C+50+15 Film: "Symmetry in physical law" (Feynman), sound, 57 min.

C+50+20 Film: "Distinction of past and future "(Feynman), sound, 46 min.

C+50+25 Film: "Probability and uncertainty "(Feynman), sound, 56 min.

C+50+30 Drum in glycerine rotates to smear line of dye into a plane and back.

Kinetic Theory and Gas Models

C+55+0 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls on OHP.

C+55+05 Hexstat probability device.

C+55+10 Mechanical model of a gas: Vibrating balls strike piston on OHP.

C+55+15 Brownian motion: Smoke particles viewed using TV camera.

C+55+20 Brownian motion: Like C+55+0, with an aluminum disk added.

C+55+25 Stoekle's apparatus: Heated tube with mercury and glass bits.

C+55+30 Ruchardt's tube: Ball oscillates in a vertical glass tube on jug.

C+55+35Diffusion of Ammonia and HCl.

C+55+40 Osmosis of helium through semi-porous cup.

C+55+45 Viscosity of air: One rotating disk drives another.

C+55+55 Breathe helium, voice pitch rises; breathe SF6, voice pitch lowers.

C+55+60 Equipartition of Energy: Different mass balls bounce out at different times.


Gas Law Program: View a model of gas molecules in motion, and vary pressure, volume, temperature, or number of moles. A graph of particle speeds is also shown.

Follow the path of a particle undergoing Brownian motion.

Liquification of a Gas

C+60+0 Hydraulic pump liquifies CO2 gas in glass column.

C+60+05 LN2 demos: pewter bell and spring, color change tube, LN2 cannon.

C+60+10 Film: "Unusual properties of liquid helium", sound, 16 min.

Molecular Models and Crystal Structure

C+62+0 Molecular models, ball and stick.

C+62+05 Film: "Bubble model of a metal", silent, 11 min.

C+62+10 Wave surfaces of crystals.

C+62+15 Model of calcite crystal.

C+62+20 Assorted crystals to show.

C+62+25 Wall chart of periodic table.


C+65+0 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench.

C+65+2 Light the Match.

C+65+05 Computer demo: Kirchhoff's radiation law, runs 15 min.

C+65+10 Large transformer heats metal strip with chalk marks on it.

C+65+15 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight, arc lamp or IR source.

C+65+20 Box with white interior appears black from hole in the side.

C+65+25 FLIR T200 Infrared camera


Two slightly different applets for showing the blackbody radiation curve:

Temperature and Expansion

C+70+0 Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.

C+70+05 Heated iron wire stretches, rotates pointer.

C+70+06 Heated horizontal nichrome wire stretches, weight sags.

C+70+10 Heated steel rod expands, raises pointer,breaks pin on cooling.

C+70+15 Ring and ball: Ball fits through ring only after ring is heated.

C+70+20 Ice bomb: Iron sphere ruptured by freezing water.

C+70+22 Heating a rubber band: negative coefficient of thermal expansion

C+70+25 Cubic coefficient of expansion: Dissectable wooden cube.

C+70+30 Steam gun: Friction heated water in tube shoots a cork.

C+70+32 LN2 in a model cannon shoots a cork.

C+70+35 Bimetallic strip: Brass/invar strip curves when heated.

C+70+40 Bimetallic switch: Change in temperature lights cold/hot lamps.

C+70+45 Franklin's pulse glass: Two glass bulbs and tube containing ether.

C+70+47 Dippy bird: Large glass bird containing ether oscillates.

C+70+50 Piston and cylinder compress/expand air measuring temp. and pressure.

C+70+55 Fire syringe: paper is ignited in a cylinder with a piston.

C+70+60 CO2 fire extinguisher: Expanding gas freezes into snow.

C+70+65 Cooling by expansion: Jar with water compressed with air.

C+70+70 Hot water geyser, runs 5-10 min.

C+70+72 Superheated Steam: steam in heated coil scorches paper.

C+70+75 Boyle's Law: At constant T, Pressure times Volume is a constant.

C+70+80 Gay-Lussac's Law: At constant V, Pressure is proportional to Temperature.

C+70+85 Charles' Law: At constant P, Volume is proportional to Temperature.


Observe effect of adding or removing heat or changing volume in an isochoric, isobaric, isothermal, or adiabatic process.


C+75+0 Measurement of temperature: Various types of thermometers.

C+75+05 Transparency: Comparison of F°, C°, and K temperature scales.

C+75+10 Transparency: Chronological history of the concepts of heat.

C+75+15 Galileo's air thermometer forces liquid down when heated.

C+75+20 Liquid Crystals: sheet changes colors with body temperature.

Triple Point

C+80+0 Triple Point: Cooled water in sealed cell exhibits all three phases.

C+80+02 Freezing liquid Nitrogen.

C+80+5 Triple Point demo: Water boils under vacuum making ice.

C+80+10 P.V.T. surface model for water.

C+80+15 P.V.T. surface model for carbon dioxide.

C+80+20 Wall chart of isothermals.

Mechanical Properties of Materials

C+90+0 Elasticity: Balls bouncing on steel or glass cylinder.

C+90+5 Breaking point of a wire is measured on a spring scale.

C+90+10 Young's modulus of elasticity: Weight stretches wire.

C+90+15 Shear: Stack of masonite squares.

C+90+16 Shear: Foam block.

C+90+20 Viscosity set: Pistons in oil and water-filled glass tubes.

C+90+25 Prince Rupert's Drops.

Book D: Electricity and Magnetism


D+0+0 Attraction between horizontal plates of a charged capacitor.

D+0+2 Various capacitors to show.

D+0+04 Parallel plate capacitor with dielectric materials and electroscope.

D+0+06 Capacitor doorbell driven by Van de Graaff generator.

D+0+08 Series capacitor array.

D+0+10 Parallel capacitors array: A charged capacitor charges the others.

D+0+12 Visual charge/discharge of a capacitor through a load.

D+0+14 Computer demo: Charge/discharge of a capacitor, runs at least 1 min.

D+0+16 Discharging a capacitor through a lamp.

D+0+18 Capacitors with a series neon bulb on A.C. and D.C.

D+0+20 Capacitor in series in an audio circuit: High pass filter.

D+0+22 Effects of changing a D.C. voltage in a series RC circuit.

D+0+24 Capacitor in parallel in an audio circuit: Low pass filter.

D+0+26 Capacitor in parallel in a D.C. circuit.

D+0+28 Energy storage in a commercial capacitor. Loud bang!

D+0+30 Oscillator made with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.

D+0+32 Same as D+0+30 using speaker for audio tone generation.

D+0+34 Same as D+0+30 using oscilloscope to display waveform.


Time evolution of an RC circuit:

Electromagnetic Oscillations

D+05+0 Resonance in a series LCR circuit using 120 v.a.c.

D+5+1 LCR paradox

D+05+02 LCR series resonance curve of V vs. F (2 - 20kHz) on an oscilloscope.

D+05+04 High frequency filtering using a capacitor and inductor.

D+05+06 Crystal radio circuit for AM reception.

D+05+08 Damped oscillations in a resonant LCR circuit on an oscilloscope.

D+05+10 85 MHz radio transmitter, with indicating lamp on dipole antenna.

D+05+12 Seibt effect: Wire wound glass tube with D+5+10 transmitter.

D+05+14 Standing waves on two parallel wires, with D+5+10 transmitter.

D+05+16 Lodge's experiment: Spark gap radio transmitter and receiver.

D+05+18 3 cm. microwave klystron oscillator with cavity and waveguides.

D+05+20 3 cm. microwave transmitter and receiver.

D+05+22 Magnetron assembly to show.

D+05+24 Waveguide pieces to show.

D+05+26 Standing waves (micro or sound) in an adjustable cavity.

D+05+30 Wall chart of electromagnetic spectrum.

D+05+32 Plexiglas model of electromagnetic wave.

D+05+34 LEDs oscillate in stored energy LC circuit.


Observe the oscillations in an LC circuit.

Impedance of series RLC circuits: See how a plot of current as a function of frequency changes when R, L, or C are changed.

RLC Circuits (DC power source): Observe how the voltages in the circuit evolve with time.

An illustration of a traveling electromagnetic wave.


D+10+0 Electric fields: Lines of force shown on an OHP.

D+10+02 Transparency: Mapping of an electric field.

D+10+04 Pith balls on thread, with positive and negative charged rods.

D+10+06 Attraction and repulsion of charged styrofoam balls.

D+10+08 Braun and Leaf electroscopes.

D+10+09 Discharging an electroscope through ionization

D+10+10 Faraday's ice pail: Charge induced on the outside of a pail.

D+10+12 Charge resides on the outside of a conductor.

D+10+13 Faraday cage: blocks signal from portable radio

D+10+14 Charging an electroscope by induction.

D+10+16 Separation of charge using electrical tape and an electroscope.

D+10+18 Electrophorous: Cat fur on teflon, acetate on lucite.

D+10+20 Van de Graaff generator.

D+10+22 Wimshurst machine, large or small.

D+10+24 Electrostatic pinwheel:Van de Graaff makes pinwheel spin.

D+10+26 Various Leyden jars to show.

D+10+28 Electrostatic doorbell: Ball bangs between charged plates.

D+10+30 Kelvin water drop electrostatic charge generator.


Electric field diagram for two point charges:

Faraday's Law

D+15+0 Bar magnet induces current in a coil, shown on galvanometer.

D+15+1 Oscillating magnets in coupled coils

D+15+02 Elementary generator: Bar moved in magnetic field.

D+15+04 Earth inductor: Coil spun in Earth's field makes voltage.

D+15+06 Generator: Coil with DC commutator rotates between magnets.

D+15+08 Alternator: Coil with AC commutator rotates between magnets.

D+15+10 Hand-cranked AC alternator powers 12 volt lamp.

D+15+11 Hand-cranked DC generator powers 120 volt lamp.

D+15+12 Back EMF in a series DC motor with large flywheel.

D+15+14 Eddy currents: Copper disk rotates over a spinning bar magnet.

D+15+16 Damped pendulum: Swinging metal disks damped in magnetic field.

D+15+18 Faraday's disk: Copper disk in Hg rotates in magnetic field.

D+15+20 Jumping rings: High current AC coil causes rings to jump.

D+15+22 Skin effect: Metal sheet shielding varies with frequency.

D+15+24 Levitator: Aluminum dish floats four inches off platform.

D+15+26 Eddy currents:Small magnet slowly drops between aluminum rails.

D+15+28 Eddy currents: Neodymium Magnet Drop.


Generator: A rectangular loop rotates in a magnetic field, with or without commutator.


D+20+0 Energy stored in large coil with soft iron core flashes bulb.

D+20+02 LR time constant: Square wave drives series LR on oscilloscope.

D+20+04 AC dimmer: Soft iron core in coil dims lamps.

LCR Phase Relationships

D+25+0 Phases of V and I in series circuit as RL shifts to RC.

Magnetic Fields

D+30+0 Suspended magnetic lodestone on string.

D+30+01 Large compass needle on stand.

D+30+02 Dip needle compass.

D+30+04 Earth model with internal magnet and pivoting probe magnet.

D+30+06 Iron filings and permanent magnets to show field on an OHP.

D+30+08 Compass needle shows field around a high current wire on bench top.

D+30+10 Iron filings around a high current vertical wire on OHP to show field.

D+30+12 Iron filings around a current carrying coil on OHP to show field.

D+30+14 Magnetic field around a solenoid with pivoting probe magnet.

D+30+16 Ampere's law: Currents in parallel wires attract or repel.

D+30+18 Force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field.

D+30+20 Elementary motor: Bar on rails over solenoid with core.

D+30+22 Torque on coil suspended between two magnets.

D+30+24 Vacuum tube with screen shows cathode rays bent with a magnet.

D+30+25 Elementary motor: De La Rive Tube.

D+30+26 E/M tube: Circular bending of an electron beam in a magnetic field.

D+30+28 Hall effect: Magnetic field induces a voltage in a neon plasma.


Magnetic field diagram for two moving point charges:

Magnetic Properties

D+35+0 Wobbly bar: Magnets in frame balanced by repulsive forces.

D+35+2 Making a magnet by electromagnetic induction.

D+35+4 Making small magnets by breaking up a larger magnet.

D+35+6 Barkhausen effect: Magnet and coil with soft iron core.

D+35+7 Barkhausen effect model: Many tiny magnets on pivots on OHP.

D+35+9 Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with OHP.

                Frogs are diamagnetic too!

D+35+10 Para and diamagnetic materials in magnetic field with arc lamp.

D+35+12 Linear motor: An iron core jumps into a solenoid.

D+35+14 YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.


D+40+0 Tangent galvanometer: Compass needle pivots in a coil.

D+40+2 Elementary galvanometer: Coil on spring in magnetic field.

D+40+4 Mavometer: Ammeter/voltmeter/galvanometer.

D+40+6 Various meters for display.

D+40+8 Ammeter shunt: Only a small current flows to the meter.


D+45+0 Rolling bar motor: Same as D+30+20.

D+45+2 Elementary split-ring armature DC motor. D+15+6 as a motor.

D+45+4 AC induction motor: Armature in a whirling field.

D+45+6 Elementary motor: Electron beam revolves in magnetic field.


DC Electrical Motor:


D+50+0 The Braun tube with magnetic and electrostatic deflection.


D+55+0 Resistance boards: Series, parallel, Wheatstone bridge.

D+55+2 Watt's law: Variable resistor, glow coil, volt and amp meter.

D+55+4 High current melts the fuse wire.

D+55+6 Resistance thermometer: Iron coil in liquid Nitrogen and flame varies current.

D+55+8 Effect of temperature on current in carbon or tungsten filaments.

D+55+10 Large tungsten filament lamp; as it heats, current drops.

D+55+12 Oscillator with resistor, capacitor and neon lamp.

D+55+13 Same as D+55+12 using speaker for audio tone generation.

D+55+14 Same as D+55+12 using oscilloscope to display waveform.

D+55+16 Film: "Elementary electricity", sound; 8 min.

D+55+18 Resistor analog: Marbles cascading down pin board.


Ohm Zone: Build your own circuits.

Kirchoff's Rules: Observe how the voltages across and currents through the resistors in a circuit change as the resistors or battery emfs change.

Solid State and Semiconductors

D+60+0 P-N Junction as a rectifier: Current flows one way.

D+60+2 P-N Junction as a rectifier: Diode bridge rectifies AC voltage.

D+60+4 Photoelectric effect: Light on P-N junction causes current flow.

D+60+6 Several commercial solar cells.

D+60+8 Commercial solar cell spins propeller using small arc lamp.

D+60+10 Impact on peizo-electric device flashes neon bulb.


Carrier concentration vs Fermi level and density of states:

Fermi level, Fermi function and electron occupancy of localized energy states:

Thermionic Emission

D+65+0 Edison effect: Electrons are cast off from hot filament.


D+70+0 Thermocouple and thermopile, both make electricity from heat.

D+70+2 Thermocouple magnet: Flame with water cooling holds weight.

D+70+4 Thermocouple magnet: Flame with ice bath, holds weight.

D+70+6 Thermoelectric fan: Fan runs off of hot and cold water.

D+70+8 Peltier junction: Forward current freezes water drop, reverse boils.


D+75+0 Demountable transformer with many secondary coils from 10:1 to 1:46.

D+75+1 Same as above: Secondary used for spot-welding.

D+75+2 Same as above: Secondary used for induction melting.

D+75+3 Same as above: Secondary used for small Jacob's ladder.

D+75+4 Large Tesla coil. 15 inch discharge.

D+75+6 Automobile coil makes a spark.

D+75+8 Large Jacob's ladder.

Voltaic Cells

D+80+0 Copper nail and iron nail in a lemon using a multimeter.

D+80+4 Gotham cell: Assorted metal electrodes in sulfuric acid bath.

D+80+6 Storage cell: Gotham cell is charged up and rings a bell.


D+85+0 Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen.

D+85+2 Bubble Electrolysis.

Book E: Optics

Color Perception

E+5+0 Standard color blindness tests and box of colored yarns.

E+5+5 Red, green, blue light on three-sided rotatable pyramid.

E+5+10 Newton's color disk: When rotated,appears white.

E+5+15 Three-color projector for additive color mixing with arc lamp.

E+5+20 Arc light spectrum recombined with concave mirror on lucite rod.

E+5+25 Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters mix subtractively on OHP.

E+5+30 Arc light spectrum with various filters.

E+5+35 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.

E+5+40 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.

E+5+45 Two slides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.


Rotating pink dots create the illusion of a green dot.

Addition of the primary colors (red, green and blue):

Observe how mixing of light (addition) differs from mixing of pigments (subtraction).


E+10+0 Single slit diffraction using laser beam through adjustable slit.

E+10+5 Laser beam through sets of 1, 2, or multiple electro-formed slits.

E+10+10 Airy's disk: Pinhole diffraction using laser beam.

E+10+15 Diffraction about pinhead, razorblade, wood screw using laser.

E+10+20 Microwave diffraction by a large adjustable iris.

E+10+25 Microwave zone plates.

E+10+30 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.

E+10+45 Limit of resolution: Two small lamps on adjustable slide.

E+10+50 Poisson's spot: Interference pattern within circular shadow.


Single slit diffraction: Observe the diffraction pattern created by light passing through a slit of variable width. You can also change the wavelength of the light.

Gratings and Spectra

E+15+0 First and second order transmission gratings, with arc lamp.

E+15+1 Reflection grating with arc lamp.

E+15+5 Arc lamp spectra from NaCl, CaCl2, SrCl soaked rods.

E+15+10 Mercury spectrum using slit and grating, includes UV lines.

E+15+12 Wall chart of mercury spectrum.

E+15+13 Applet; transmission and absorption spectra of all the elements

E+15+15 Absorption spectrum of Na using arc lamp, slit and grating.

E+15+20 Diffraction patterns of various gratings using He-Ne laser.

E+15+25 Hand-held gratings for class to view Hg, Ne discharge tubes.


Observe the intensity profile for a diffraction grating with variable number of slits, slit spacing, slit width, and wavelength.


E+20+0 Films: "Laser light", U of Utah, sound, 38 min.; "Introduction to Holography", Ext. media center,sound, 17 min.; "Introduction to Lasers", Ext. media center, sound, 17 min.

E+20+5 Transmission hologram viewed with laser light.

E+20+6 Reflection hologram viewed with white light.


E+25+0 Large wood model of a double slit with hinged waves.

E+25+5 Ripple tank with plane or spherical water waves and barriers.

E+25+10 Microwave interference with single and double slits.

E+25+15 Laser beam through various slit and grating combinations.

E+25+20 Red/green/blue line source viewed with double slit paddles.

E+25+25 Thin film interference with optical flats and sodium lamp.

E+25+30 Newton's rings by transmission or reflection on arc bench.

E+25+35 Same as E+25+30, using Hall's prism.

E+25+40 Soap film interference: The soap bubble experiment on arc bench.

E+25+42 Oil film interference on water.

E+25+45 Thin film interference with mercury light on mica sheets.

E+25+50 Laser projected through Fabry-Perot interferometer shows pattern.

E+25+55 Lloyd's mirror: Laser beam interferes with reflection from glass.

E+25+60 Michelson interferometer fringes with laser or white light.

E+25+65 Microwave interference by multiple reflection.


Two-slit interference, with variable wavelength and slit separation. Also includes intensity profile.

An illustration of the intensity profile for two-slit interference, including the diffraction envelope. Allows variable slit separation, slit width and wavelength.


E+30+5 Air, glass and water lenses in water tank with arc lamp.

E+30+10 Blackboard optics: Light sources with lucite lenses.

E+30+15 Real images: Lighted arrow image and various lenses.

E+30+20 Cylindrical lens of lucite with words "DIOXIDE GLASS".

E+30+25 Fresnel lenses to show.

E+30+30 Large lens shows chromatic aberration on screen using arc lamp.

E+30+35 Pincushion and barrel distortion of lenses using arc lamp.

E+30+40 Cylindrical aberration: Wooden model.

E+30+45 Astronomical telescope: Using objective and eyepiece lenses.

E+30+50 Galilean telescope: similar to E+30+45.

E+30+55 Compound microscope is assembled from lenses.

E+30+60 Lantern slide projector with removable housing.

E+30+65 Model of the eye, with near/far sight lenses, using arc lamp.


Lenses and mirrors: Observe the image created by a converging/diverging lens or mirror. You can change the object position, object height, and focal length.

Image Formation by a Converging Lens: As you change the object position, you can observe the real or virtual image change position. Shows a large number of rays.

Observe the effect of a single converging lens or two such lenses on the rays from an object. The position and focal length of each lens can be varied.

Image Formation by a Diverging Lens: As you change the object position, you can observe the virtual image change position. Shows a large number of rays.

Build a system of lenses and/or mirrors.

Optics of the eye: Observe how a normal, nearsighted or farsighted person's eye affects incoming rays. You can change object position and focal length of the eye system, and add eyeglasses of variable focal length.

Metallic Color

E+35+0 Color by reflected and transmitted light, using gold leaf.


E+40+0 Arc lamp and mirror on large disk rotate showing beam angles.

E+40+5 Blackboard optics: Light sources with plane and curved mirrors.

E+40+10 Phantom lightbulb: Image in a plane mirror.

E+40+15 Hand held plane mirror and right angle mirror.

E+40+20 Variable angle mirror assembly with candle.

E+40+21 Barbershop mirrors:Parallel mirrors with light bulb.

E+40+25 Retrodirective reflector: Silvered right angle prism, using laser.

E+40+30 Reflections from concave and convex mirrors with lighted arrow.

E+40+35 Phantom bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.

E+40+40 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.

E+40+41 Concave mirrors focus candle flame on thermopile across bench. (same as C+65+0)

E+40+42Light the Match (same as C+65+2).


Lenses and mirrors: Observe the image created by a converging/diverging lens or mirror. Can change the object position, object height, and focal length.

Converging mirror: Observe the image created by a concave mirror. Can change the mirror position and focal length. Shows a large number of rays.

Diverging mirror: Observe the image created by a convex mirror. Can change the object position. Shows a large number of rays.

Build a system of lenses and/or mirrors.

Polarization and Birefringence

E+45+0 Two picket fence sections with slats and rope to make waves.

E+45+5 Microwaves with grid. Transmitter and receiver are polarized.

E+45+10 Malus experiment: Polarization by reflection off glass surface.

E+45+15 Polarization of light by internal reflection: Fresnel rhomb.

E+45+20 Polarization of light through a pile of glass plates, using arc lamp.

E+45+25 Commercial Polaroid filters on an OHP.

E+45+30 Plaster models of positive and biaxial crystals.

E+45+35 Two tourmaline crystals act as polaroids, using arc lamp.

E+45+40 Light through polaroid and calcite, using arc lamp.

E+45+45 Model of a calcite crystal.

E+45+50 Light through Nicol prism and Nicol analyzer, using arc lamp.

E+45+55 Quartz prisms give a single and double spectrum, using arc lamp.

E+45+60 Polarized light and stressed lucite on an OHP.

E+45+65 Optical rotation of polarized light by sugar solution, using arc lamp.

E+45+70 Optical rotation by sugar solution produces barber pole, using arc lamp.

E+45+75 Mechanical model to show circular polarization; hand-cranked.

E+45+80 Circular polarization with quarter wave plate, using arc lamp.

E+45+85 Circular polarization of microwaves by elliptical metal tube.

E+45+90 Circular polarization of microwaves: With reflector and grids.

E+45+95 Polarized light thru Karo syrup shows dark bands, using arc lamp.

E+45+100 10λ retarder plate makes dark bands in spectrum, using arc lamp.

E+45+105 Sunset: solution in tank scatters blue light, using arc lamp.

E+45+110 Visible nodes and antinodes in linearly birefringent plexiglass rod.


E+50+0 Total internal reflection: 45º-45º-90º prism using arc lamp.

E+50+5 Four-prisms, same index of refraction, different angles, using laser.

E+50+10 Eight-prisms, different index of refraction, same angle, using laser.

E+50+15 Blackboard optics: Light source and lucite prism.

E+50+20 Refraction of white light by prism using arc lamp.

E+50+25 Light from arc lamp enters direct view prism emerges as spectrum.

E+50+30 Dove prism to erect projected images using arc lamp.

E+50+35 Binoculars and Porro prisms to show.

Propagation of Light

E+55+0 Inverse square law: Light bulb in wire frame.

E+55+5 He-Ne laser compared to non-coherent red light bulb.

E+55+10 Image formed by a pinhole using three light bulbs in a box.

Refraction and Reflection

E+60+0 Displacement of a beam passing through a thick plate of glass.

E+60+2 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.

E+60+5 Total internal reflection/critical angle: Nakamura water tank.

E+60+10 Rainbow: Refraction of white light by a liquid sphere.

E+60+15 Light pipes and fiber optic flashlight.

E+60+17 Water fiber optic

E+60+20 Flexible light pipe using arc lamp.

E+60+25 Fiber optic cable transmits picture from slide to video monitor.

E+60+30 Microwave analogy of the light pipe using flexible metal tubing.

E+60+35 Reflection of microwaves off an aluminum plate.

E+60+40 Variable index of refraction: laser beam bends in water tank with sugar.


Reflection and Refraction: Observe how a wavefront creates reflected and refracted wavefronts as it encounters an interface between two media.

Physics of the Rainbow: A highly detailed examination of the effect of a water droplet on different colors of light.

Another illustration of the rainbow, showing the effect of a water droplet on white light.

Fermat's principle: See how the path taken by a light beam is the path that minimizes the travel time.

Spectral Energy

E+65+0 IR source illuminates audience viewed with CCD TV camera in dark room.

E+65+5 Crooke's radiometer with flashlight or IR source.

E+65+10 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp.

E+65+12 FLIR T200 Infrared camera

E+65+15 Concave mirrors and horn thermopile senses candle across room.

E+65+20 Measurement of light intensity: Footcandle meter.

E+65+25 As light bulb filament increases temp. its spectrum shifts red to blue.

E+65+30 UV light causes mineral and fabric samples to fluoresce different colors.

Book F: Modern and Contemporary Physics

Quantum Physics Online: Click here for various applets dealing with topics in quantum mechanics.

Cathode and Canal Rays

F+0+0 Vacuum tube with screen show cathode rays bent with a magnet.

F+0+5 Vacuum tube with metal cross makes shadow with cathode rays.

F+0+10 Vacuum tube with paddlewheel spins from cathode ray impact.

F+0+15 Braun tube (CRT) with magnetic and electrostatic deflection.

Video of the above mentioned crooke's tubes


F+5+0 X-Ray tube: Hard X-rays detected by fluorescent screen.

F+5+5 X-rays ionize electrode and discharge electroscope.

F+5+10 X-ray beam through cloud chamber shown on TV camera

F+5+15 Bragg diffraction using microwaves and steel balls in foam cube.

Electron Diffraction

F+10+0 Electron diffraction by aluminum and graphite on CRT.

F+10+5 Film: "Matter Waves", sound, 28 min.

Photoelectric Effect

F+15+0 UV light hits charged zinc plate and discharges electroscope.

F+15+5 Light through different filters into phototube changes current.

F+15+10 Phototube circuit allows current flow in one direction only.

F+15+15 EMF generated by phototube using halogen light source.

F+15+20 Commercial solar cell spins propeller using halogen light source.

F+15+25 Light hits diode,causes current flow. Uses arc lamp.

F+15+30 NPN junction as a phototransistor amplifier.

F+15+35 Recording modulates laser beam which hits solar cell and amplifier.

F+15+40 Film loop: "Photoelectric effect", 4:02 min.


F+18+0 Film: "Photons", sound, 19 min..

F+18+5 Film: "Interference of photons", sound 13 min.

F+18+10 Photomultiplier tubes to show.

F+18+15 Photomultipler tube on scope shows photons with TV camera.

Atomic Structure

F+20+0 "Plum pudding": Corks with magnets float in bowl/solenoid on OHP.

F+20+5 Rutherford scattering model: Steel balls, launcher, and "hill".

F+20+10 Model of the nucleus: Steel balls in plastic dish on OHP.

F+20+15 Film: "Rutherford atom", sound, 40 min.

F+20+20 Mechanical models of the hydrogen atom.

F+20+25 Bohr-Stoner charts(5): Electron configurations of the elements.

F+20+30 Wall chart or online applet of periodic table.

F+20+35 Wall chart or online applet of the nuclides.


Thomson model of the atom:

Rutherford model of the atom:

Bohr model of the atom:

See the order in which atomic shells are filled with electrons:


F+25+10Java applets: Quantum Properties

Quantum Mechanical Barrier Penetration

F+30+0 Tunneling:Microwave analogy using wax prisms.


An illustration of a wave packet encountering a potential energy barrier.

Elementary Particles

F+35+0 Fundamental particle and interaction chart.(LBL)

Cloud Chambers

F+45+0 Cloud chamber with cold water and alcohol shown on TV camera

F+45+10 Cloud chamber with dry ice and alcohol shown on TV camera.

F+45+15 Cloud chamber shows X-rays: Same as F+5+10.

Franck-Hertz Experiment

F+55+0 Film: "Franck-Hertz experiment", sound, 30 min.

Special Relativity

F+60+0Applet: various simulated experiments


Clocks and the Postulates of Special Relativity:


F+65+0 Scintillation counter using Geiger tube.

F+65+05 Geiger counter.

F+65+10 Mechanical model of radioactive decay.

F+65+15 Wall chart of the nuclides.

F+65+20 Film loop: "Radioactivity", 4:00 min.

F+65+25 Film loop: "Radioactive decay", 4:55 min.


An illustration of the law of radioactive decay:


F+70+0 Large mechanical model of the cyclotron.


How a cyclotron works.

Fission and Fusion

F+80+0 Mousetrap chain reaction experiment.

F+80+05 Model of the uranium pile.


F+85+0 YBaCuO pellet with magnet in liquid nitrogen on TV camera.

Zeeman Effect

F+90+0 Magnetic field splits Cd interferometer lines on TV camera.


F+95+0 Working helium-neon laser in transparent housing.


Operation of a laser:

Fuel Cells

F+100+0 Fuel cell car runs off hydrogen and oxygen.

Book G: Astronomy and Perception

Astronomy Slides

G+0+0 35mm slides for astronomy.

Astronomy Models

G+05+0 Vault of the heavens: Large lucite globe.

G+05+05 Earth, Sun, and Mars model.

G+05+10 Solar system model.

Audio Illusions

G+50+05 Shepard Tones: repeating tones appear to continuously ascend or descend

Optical Illusions

G+55+0 Revolving window illusion.

G+55+05 Rotating disk and strobe demonstration.

G+55+10 Optical illusion posters.

G+55+15 Phantom Bouquet: Real image from a concave mirror.

G+55+20 Clam shell mirrors: Floating coin illusion.

G+55+25 Indices of Refraction: glass in glycerin and phantom crystals.


G+60+05 Pulfrich Effect: Pendulum and polaroid experiment.

G+60+10 Limit of resolution: Two movable pin-points of light.

G+60+15 Limit of audibility: Set of rods that ring at different frequencies.

G+60+20 Set of color blindness cards.

G+60+25 Rotating disk with black and white lines makes color illusion.

G+60+30 Purkinje effect: At low intensity, blue is more visible than red.

G+60+35 Two sides plus red and green light gives full color illusion.

G+60+40 Detection of the IR, visible, and UV spectra using arc lamp on TV camera.


Rotating pink dots create the illusion of a green dot:

Addition of the primary colors (red, green and blue):

Observe how mixing of light (addition) differs from mixing of pigments (subtraction).

General Physics Applets

Links to many specific applets are also scattered throughout this Lecture Demonstration index.

PhET, a collection of interactive physics simulations from the Physics Education Technology project at the University of Colorado:

UCLA's ePhysics (there are many links to specific ePhysics applets in our Lecture Demonstration index):

Hyperphysics, a collection of tutorials hosted by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University:

General Physics Java Applets, by B. Surendranath Reddy:

MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching)

Back to Physics Demonstrations' Home Page