Sources of Images and Copyright

Sources of Images in SPIRO

SPIRO contains surrogate images of photographs and drawings from approximately 2,000 books, 200 periodical titles, and 100 postcards, posters, and calendars. SPIRO also contains surrogate representations of slides from 25 slide vendors and 220 donors. Because the photographs from which the digital surrogates were made are copyrighted, you may download WebSPIRO images only for classroom presentations, unpublished papers, and personal use. Any other uses, especially publication or sale, requires the permission of the copyright holder.

Because of slide label limitations, source information has been abbreviated to fit very small labels. The Architecture Visual Resources Library regrets any difficulties encountered searching by Source Abbreviation.

Purpose of SPIRO

SPIRO is available on the World Wide Web in order to provide architectural and art documentation and image availability information. SPIRO is not password-protected and is available as a shared resource for educational, research, scholarly, and cultural institutions in order to encourage the development and dissemination of cultural documentation.

The Architecture Visual Resources Library at the University of California, Berkeley strives to provide the most accurate information for the images in its catalog. Errors and omissions in SPIRO and questions about permissions should be brought to the attention of the Architecture Visual Resources Library.


Digital images in SPIRO are surrogate representations of real photographs, slides, and drawings. U.S. government images and images published prior to 1921 are most likely in the public domain, and may be available for use without further permission. All other digital images in SPIRO probably represent copyrighted works. You may use copyrighted works for education, scholarship, and criticism without securing the permission of the copyright holder. This means you may download images for classroom projection, unpublished papers, and personal uses only. All other uses, especially publication and sale require written permission of the copyright holder. Publication of Architecture Visual Resources Library images in any form, such as in dissertations, theses, personal and course web pages is not permitted without the expressed written permission of the copyright holder. Papers written in fulfillment of class assignments are not considered publications. Full source information for images used in class assignments should be acknowledged in footnotes, captions, or bibliographies.

Information about the copyright holder or the copyright holder's designee is provided as Source Information with each complete record. To see the complete record, click on a thumbnail image. Please contact the vendor, donor, or publication listed for information on reproduction rights. Because publishers are often not the copyright holders of images, consult the publication itself for information on ownership of individual images. If there is insufficient information in the publication, consult the publisher in order to contact the author or authors.

The majority of vendors and donors have written agreements with the Architecture Visual Resources Library (AVRL) giving AVRL permission to display thumbnail images on the World Wide Web. Images photographed from books and periodicals under the fair use provisions of U.S. Code Title 17 do not have written permissions on file. Every effort has been made to locate the full publication imprint for images that represent photographs in books and periodicals.

Some images display in SPIRO with a large red circle and copyright symbol obstructing their view. This display was generated in response to vendor requests. However, these images do not have more copyright protection than images not displaying the red copyright symbol. Some Architecture Visual Resources Library images with specific vendors and donors.

revised: March 22, 2005