[Foreword]
[Executive Summary]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

FOREWORD

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ERRATA

FIGURES

I. INTRODUCTION
Background
Methods
The Study Region
Scarcity and Losses Wetlands Definition
Clean Water Act Section 404 Jurisdiction
Hydrogeomorphic Units
Ecosystem Functions and Socio-Economic Values
How to Use this Volume

II. ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

Introduction
Geologic History
Geography
Coast Ranges
Southern Provinces
Climate
Vegetation
Land Use History
Native American Use
European and Modern Influence

III. CLASSIFICATION

Introduction
Classification of California Wetlands
Early Efforts
Improvements and Additions
Agency Efforts
A Modified Cowardin et al. Approach
How to Use this Classification
Rationale for the Classification Methodology
The Classification Tables
Systems, Subsystems, Classes, and Subclasses of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats
Water Regimes: Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats
Water/Soil Chemistry: Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats
Hydrogeomorphic Units: (High-Order Levels)
Hydrogeomorphic Units: Marine and Estuarine Systems
Hydrogeomorphic Units: Riverine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine System
Substrate/Dominance/Characteristic Types: Marine and Estuarine Systems
Substrate/Dominance/Characteristic Types: Riverine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine Systems

IV. KEYS

Key to the Wetland Systems
Key to the Marine Subsystems and Classes
Key to the Estuarine Subsystems and Classes
Key to the Riverine Subsystems and Classes
Key to the Lacustrine Subsystems and Classes
Key to the Palustrine Classes

V. MARINE SYSTEM

Introduction
Marine Wetlands
Marine Wetland Classes and Subclasses
Marine Hydrogeomorphic Units
Ecosystem Functions and Socio-Economic Values
Ecosystem Functions
Socio-Economic Values
Losses and Impacts to Marine Wetlands
Losses
Impacts
Restoration and Creation of Marine Wetlands
Rare or Threatened Wetlands
Classification of Marine Wetlands
Key to the Marine Wetland Classes and Subclasses
Table of the Marine Hydrogeomorphic Units Arranged Within Corresponding Water Regimes
Catalogue of Marine Wetlands

VI. ESTUARINE SYSTEM

Introduction
Estuarine Wetlands
Types of Estuaries
River Mouth Estuaries
Canyon Mouth Estuaries
Lagoonal Estuaries
Coastal Dune-Creek Estuaries
Bay Estuaries
Structural Basin Estuaries
Artificial Drain Estuaries
Estuarine Wetland Classes and Subclasses
Estuarine Hydrogeomorphic Units
Ecosystem Functions and Socio-Economic Values
Ecosystem Functions
Socio-Economic Values
Losses and Impacts to Estuarine Wetlands
Losses
Impacts
Restoration and Creation of Estuarine Wetlands
Rare or Threatened Wetlands
Classification of Estuarine Wetlands
Key to the Estuarine Wetland Classes
Table of Estuarine Hydrogeomorphic Units Arranged Within Corresponding Water Regimes
Catalogue of Estuarine Wetlands

VII. RIVERINE SYSTEM

Introduction
Riverine Wetlands
Types of Rivers, Streams, and Washes
Riverine Wetland Subsystems, Classes, and Subclasses
Riverine Hydrogeomorphic Units
Ecosystem Functions and Socio-Economic Values
Ecosystem Functions
Socio-Economic Values
Losses and Impacts to Riverine Wetlands
Modification of Natural Flow and Retention Patterns
External Threats: Riverine Systems as Open Ecosystems
Riverine Systems as Disturbance-Driven Ecosystems
Loss of Resistence and Resilience in Riverine Ecosystems
Restoration and Creation of Riverine Wetlands
Rare or Threatened Wetlands
Key to the Riverine Wetland Subsystems and Classes
Table of the Riverine Hydrogeomorphic Units Arranged Within Corresponding Water Regimes
Catalogue of Riverine Wetlands

VIII. LACUSTRINE SYSTEM

Introduction
Lacustrine Wetlands
Types of Lakes
Natural Lakes
Artificial Reservoirs
Lacustrine Wetland Classes and Subclasses
Lacustrine Wetland Hydrogeomorphic Units
Ecosystem Functions and Socio-Economic Values
Ecosystem Functions
Socio-Economic Values
Losses and Impacts to Lacustrine Wetlands
Restoration and Creation of Lacustrine Wetland
Rare or Threatened Lacustrine Wetlands
Key to the Lacustrine Wetland Subsystems, Classes and Subclasses
Table of the Lacustrine Hydrogeomorphic Units Arranged Within Corresponding Water Regimes
Catalogue of Lacustrine Wetlands

IX. PALUSTRINE SYSTEM

Introduction
Palustrine Wetlands
Palustrine Wetland Classes and Subclasses
Palustrine Wetland Hydrogeomorphic Units
Ecosystem Functions and Socio-Economic Values
Ecosystem Functions
Socio-Economic Values
Losses and Impacts to Palustrine Wetlands
Losses
Impacts
Restoration and Creation of Palustrine Wetlands
Rare or Threatened Palustrine Wetlands
Vernal Pools
Vernal Ponds
Palustrine Vernal Lakes
Vernal Alkali Plains
Dune Swale Wetlands
Coastal Canyon Bottom
Forested Riparian Corridors
Classification of the Palustrine Wetlands
Key to Palustrine Wetland Classes
Table of the Palustrine Hydrogeomorphic Units in the Arranged Within Corresponding Water Regimes
Catalogue of Palustrine Wetlands

X. HYDROGEOMORPHIC CLASSIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE WETLANDS OF THE VENTURA RIVER WATERSHED (Forthcoming)

Introduction
Background
The Ventura River Watershed
Physical Characteristics
Estuarine Characteristics
Marine Characteristics
History of Land and Water Development
Methods
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Assessment of Functions and Values
Description of Wetland Types and Distribution
Marine System
Estuarine System
Lacustrine System
Riverine System
Palustrine System
Watershed Distribution
Assessment of Functions and Values

XI. THE FUTURE

XII. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

XIII. GLOSSARY

XIV. LITERATURE

APPENDIX XV-1: Species of Special Concern

APPENDIX XV-2: Catalogue of the Hydrogeomorphic Classification and

Functional Assessment of the Ventura River